Are Fajan's rules important in IIT JEE

The Vieweg formula lexicon: basic knowledge for engineers, scientists and medical professionals [1. Ed.] 978-3-528-03950-9; 978-3-322-89957-6

Table of contents:
Front Matter .... Pages I-VIII
Structure of matter (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 1-85
Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 87-182
Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Processes (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 183-220
Vibrations and waves (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 221-238
Acoustics and noise protection (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 239-250
Optics and Lighting Technology (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 251-285
Electrical engineering and computer engineering (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 287-372
Thermodynamics, thermal processes, energy technology (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 373-433
Mass transport and reaction engineering (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 435-466
Analytical chemistry, occupational safety and environmental protection (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 467-506
Electrochemistry and Surface Technology (Peter Kurzweil) .... Pages 507-567
Back Matter .... Pages 568-594

Citation preview

Peter Kurzweil

The Vieweg formula lexicon basic knowledge for engineers, scientists and medical professionals

Peter Kurzweil The Vieweg formula lexicon

reference books

Vieweg Lexicon technology

published by A. Boge Das Techniker Handbuch

published by A. Boge Vieweg Handbook of Electrical Engineering

edited by W. B6ge The Vieweg unit lexicon

by P. Kurzweil

The Vieweg formula lexicon

by P. Kurzweil Gabler Lexicon Logistics

by P. Klaus and W. Krieger Gabler Wirtschaftsinformatik-Lexikon

edited by E. Stickel et al. Gabler Compact Lexicon eBusiness

by Bernd W. Wirtz

_________

Peter Kurzweil

The Vieweg Formula Lexicon Basic knowledge for engineers, natural scientists and medical professionals

II vreweg

The German Library - CIP standard recording A bibliographic record for this publication is available from the German Library.

1st edition March 2002

All rights reserved ISBN 978-3-322-89958-3 ISBN 978-3-322-89957-6 (eBook) DOI 10.1007 / 978-3-322-89957-6 © Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2002 Originally published by Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Braunschweig / Wiesbaden 2002.

www.vieweg.de The work, including all of its parts, is protected by copyright. Any use outside the narrow limits of copyright law without the consent of the publisher is inadmissible and punishable by law. This applies in particular to reproductions, translations, microfilming and storage and processing in electronic systems. Concept and layout of the cover: Ulrike Weigel, www.CorporateDesignGroup.de Printed on acid-free paper

Foreword A mechanical engineer in a major domestic company was faced with the task of calculating the size of a steel tank for heating a factory hall with liquefied gas. In a chemical-physical table he came across the indication of the molar enthalpy of combustion in I / mol. The engineer was confused, because he simply wanted to know the "calorific value of a cubic meter". He was no longer familiar with the meaning of the mole as an SI unit of the amount of substance and the conversion to volume using the molar mass In almost all areas of the natural and engineering sciences the growth in knowledge and technologies is booming. In the last decade the curriculum of the over-grained courses of study has swelled to the limit of studyability. With environmental technology, mechatronics, software system technology, patent engineering, medical technology etc. are new interdisciplinary ones Courses of study emerged that demand a broad cross-sectional knowledge of future engineers. The traditional classification of knowledge in the conflict between natural and engineering sciences is obviously blurred. Principles of physics and chemistry that were previously repealed in the classical disciplines. Electrical engineering and mechanical engineering are increasingly merging into higher-level knowledge packages. This book is about the "basic knowledge of the engineer" and the industrial applications. This reference work is a collection of physical-chemical-technical formulas, tables and data collection in one. It accompanies you through the microcosm of technical forms and terms. Students, students , Teachers and practitioners, will find the relevant basic and specialist knowledge of the natural and engineering sciences quickly and reliably - be it in tests or when assessing complicated issues in an industrial environment. Around 6,000 keyword entries bridge the gap from subatomic particles to process engineering reactors The lexicon is divided into clear sections, which correspond to the sub-disciplines of the natural science and technology courses at European universities: I. Structure of the subject 2. Mechanics and mechanical engineering 3. Flow mechanics and mechanical processes 4. Vibrations and waves 5. Acoustics and soundproofing 6. Optics ics and lighting technology 7. Electrical engineering and technical informatics 8. Thermodynamics, thermal processes and energy technology 9. Analytical chemistry, occupational safety and environmental protection 10. Material transport and reaction technology II. Electrochemistry and surface technology 12. Keyword index The clear preparation of the material should be given in a lexical short ensure fast access times and a high density of facts. The focus is on the practical application of scientific and technical facts and formulas: broad derivations are therefore sparingly to be found. Nevertheless, the necessary depth is not waived selectively, especially since the students in today's university environment often find neither the time nor leisure to extract relevant information from prosaic textbooks. The extensive index of keywords leads purposefully from the question to the technical explanation in the index part of the corresponding specialist chapter. English translations of internationally standardized terms. Material data, application and calculation examples are intended to help reduce everyday communication obstacles in practice and training.

VI The work implements the new spelling. which has been binding since August 1, 1999. It runs counter to the hum anistic ideal of education, but finally the general "ph" is abolished! We now read graphics, telephones, polarography, photometry, graphite - and: Foton? No, in spite of all modernity: we do not want to use any national spelling against the international English spelling. Even if the orang to the .J "ke is hesitant in the USA, this lexicon continues in" Photo n "and" Phonon " And it stays with "D ifferential" and "Potentia l". My special thanks go to my esteemed colleague Prof. Dr. rer. Nat, M ATTHIAS MANDL. For the manuscript

carefully read through and enriched it with valuable additions - especially the chapters. Acoustics: and "Optics". The Vieweg publishing house, above all his former employee Mr. WOLFGANG SCHWARZ. I thank you for the professional assistance and the drafty printing of the work in the proven quality. The continuous improvement of the work in the future Aullagen is a particular concern of the author and publisher. We therefore look forward to every constructive letter. On the mountain. in January 2002 Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Peter Kurzweil University of Applied Sciences Ambe rg-Weiden Department of Environmental Technology / Machin enbar Kaiser-Wilhelm-Rin g 23 922 24 Amberg

p.kur two [email protected] -arnb e rg- weide n. de

VII

User instructions Keywords are in bold, units of measurement upright, words of Latin and Greek origin in italics, foreign-language terms in writing. e (liter) distinguishes I, 1 and I. In addition to ISO (standard 32, 14 parts), IUPAC and IUPAP, the following new and older standards have been taken into account:

Abbreviations

• DIN 58122 (formal symbols, dimensions and units) • DI N 130 1 T2 and TI (SI units and units for all parts of the SF system) • DIN 1302 (mathematical symbols and terms) • DIN 1304 (general symbols. Designation by Grotsen) • DIN 1338 (formulas and formulas) • DIN 1355 (lines) • DIN 5497 and DIN 133 17 (mechanics of rigid bodies: terms, sizes, formulas) • DI N 1305 (mass, force, weight, las r) • DIN 1306 (thickness) • DI N 1310 (composition of mixing phases) • DI N 1311 (vibration theory) • DI N 1313 ( physical principles and equations: terms, spelling) • DIN 1314 (print) • DIN 1315 (angle) • DI N 1320 and DIN 1332 (acoustics) • DI N 1342 (viscosity) • DIN 134 1 (Heat transfer) • DIN 134 5 (thermodynamics) • DI N 13345 (thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions) • DIN 13346 (temperature, temperature diffusion) • DI N 4701 (rule n for the calculation now Warmth of buildings) • DIN 5031 (radiation physics in the optical area. Lichu ech nik) • DIN 5496 (temperature radiation) • DIN 549 9 (calorific value and calorific value) • DIN 894 1 (formula symbols, units and index in the cold technology

Dep. general AO ex. to cherish. CT

chemical batch transfer

d. el., el.

by ch: the, the. the e lek tric h

tight l. ex po f. French. Greek. HG info

English experimental

int. ital.

international

nics) • DIN 1323 (elec trical voltage, potential. Two poles, electric motor force) • DIN 1324 (el ectric field) • DIN 1325 (magnetic field) • DIN 54 83 (time-dependent rumble ) • DIN 548 9 and DI N 13222 (electrical networks) • DIN 5493 (logarithmic ratios) • DIN 401 0 8 (elec trical energy tech nology: power systems) • DI N 40 110 (alternating currents ) • DI N 40 146 TI and T2 (terms of message transmission and transmission systems). • DI N 25404 (core technology) • DIN 32625 (bulk and units in chemistry; amount of material) • DI N 4896 (Etektr ol yu osungeo) • DIN 13312 (Na vigatio n)

Greek alphabet

she no; further s keyword

kin. kr it. lat.

r

fi y S

Ll E Z

E. E

H

11

(-)

I K

AT THE

,'.8

K

l. I '

Alpha Beta Gamma Della Eps ilon Zeta Eta Theta lol a Kap pa Lambda My

-

0

Ny

Xi o

R.

(l. P

E T Y. '

(1 . ,-

",. i /!

X

X

Omikron Pi Rho S igma Tau Yp si lon Phi Chi

(V

Om eg a

n

> yy

n

7l '.Cl1

r

u

.p

Psi

for French, Zosian, Greek

Main group in succession. in basic italian kine table critical latin ic

With

likes n. mech.

likes netic mec hanisch Molekiilor bital

MO

nat. or opt. o rg. phys. port, qu an t. rel. span. spe z. syst. thermo theor., possibly Ug. v. Verb. See Vh. due to Zs h. l UI.

N

At omo rbiral example

m.

ZW.

A B

a

General dependency

of course or o ptisch orga nically physically

portuguese quantitative relative spanish spe cic system desire therrnisch. therm od ynam is theoretically and about concealment of, before connection

compare, see relationship

Connection between the two

VIII

Table of contents Structure of the subject 2

Mechanics and engineering

3

Flow theory and mechanical processes

87 183

4 vibrations and waves

221

5 Acoustics and sound insulation

239

6 Optics and lighting technology

251

7

287

Electrical engineering and technical informatics

8 Thermodynamics, thermal processes, energy technology

373

9 Mass transport and reaction engineering

435

10 Analytical chemistry, occupational safety and environmental protection

467

11 Electrochemistry and surface engineering

507

Sources and further literature

568

Keyword index

573

Structure of matter

1

Atomic Physics - Periodic Table - Spectroscopy - Instrumental Analysis - Photochemistry, Chemical Bonding - Materials (Alloys, Steel, Polymers) Crystallography - Solid State Physics - Complex Chemistry - Quantum Mechanics Nuclear Physics - Radloactivity - Radiation Protection - Radiochemistry - Nuclear Medicine Interaction of Elementary Particles - - nuclear spectroscopy - mass spectrometry

Formula symbol physical size

symbol

Mass count, nucleon count (radio) activity

A.

Relative atomic weight expected value rotation rate

- wave number-related spin coupling constant

specific activity actinity of radiation 2 hyperfine coupling constants (in liquids) lattice displacement vector

A Ar (A). .. \ A, H. C

A, B. C

Unit

Unite base

English name

=1

mass number. nucl eo n numb er activity of a radioactive subst ance relative ato mic mass expectation value rotati onal constant - in wavenumber sp in orbit coupling const ant spec ific activity actinic effectivity hyperfine coupling cons tant (in liquid s) fundamental translation vecto r (for the cry stal lattice} (circular) fundamental tran slation vector for the reci proc al latt ice Boh r radius

= C l

Bq

= 1 different Hz m- I

A.

m- I

a

Bqlk g

a (2)

a, A

Hz

,; , h, c

m

al · u ~ "; J

Reciprocal goods movement vector

ii ·, h *] ·

Bohr radius anomaly of the magn. Mom ents - of the electron - of the Myon Deb ye Wa ller factor

"0

bl .b ~, 1; 3

=1 =1 =1

Burgers vector

m

m / s

(Vacuum jl. Speed ​​of movement of dissociation energy

D, Ed

- from the basic state

DO

- Vern potential minimum

De D

Ene rgiedos is Energiedo sisle istung Equivalent dose Equivalent dose rate. -Ie isting of coupling constant, NMR centrifugal force correc- tion -conta nte lattice level distance

m

D.

Dq

Dq

D AB DJ .D1K

= m ~ kg s - ~

J

=

m- I

d d

m

Enrurtungsgrad

Half-value thickness

d l / ~

m

G i tterko nsranre des

Sil ic iumkri sta lls

:

~~~::=~

Gy = Jjk g = m ~ s-2 Gy j s W j kg m ~ s- 3 Sv = J / k g = m ~ s - ~ Sv] »= W I kg = m- 2 s- 3 Hz s-I

=

=

=1

m

Partial energy Hurtree energy Binding energy Ionization energy Elementary charge

J = Nm = W s = m2 kg s- 2 J J J = As C

Farudu y constant

Clmo l m- I

Rotational energy term hyperfine structure quantum scale force coordinate

Force constant - self-sufficient molecular

= A s / mo l

= 1 different J / m ~ different

electron magn etic moment ..morn aly muon magn etic moment anoma ly Debye -Waller factor Burgers vecto r speed oflight (in vacuum) d issociation ene rgy - from the ground state - from the pote ntial minimum abso rbed dose (of rad iat io n) abso rbed do se rate dose equ ivalent (inde x) dose equivalent rate d irect d ipola r co upling con stant ce ntrifuga l distorti on constant latt ice plan e spacing degeneracy half-value layer, thickn ess for half absorption lattice spacing of a silico n crys tal panicle e nergy Hanr ee energy bind ing ene rgy ioni za tion energy eleme ntary charge Farada y const ant rotationa l term hyperfine structure quantum number vibratio nal forc e coordi nate vibratio nal force con stant fo ra polyatornic molecular

2

Physical scale

symbol

Packing proportion of thermal reactant use Gravity factor

f f

Reciprocal lattice detector Vibration energy term

On-site case resolution; degree of maintenance; electrical factor; Proton -g factor Hamilton funct ion Hamilton operator Co ulo mb- Imegra l Resonance integral Planck's coefficient of action

Main axis moment of inertia Kemspin quantum hl spin coupling constant, NMR Jonendo sis Io ne ndo sis rate, power Particle flux density Current density operator Josephson constant Kerma Kermarate •. power multiplication factor dim ension sless Kruftkoo rdi nate Bolizman n-constant orbital rotational impulse s-qu an len number molar mass molar mass cons onsrant transfer diopole mo rnent wander hinge wander flat magnet quanta count! Electron robbers as se protons nmasse Neutro ne nmasse Atom are Mussene inhe it Neurrc nenza hl Avoga dro- constant

Also completely dense state of oscillation acceptance density (in e. Semiconductors) donor density (semiconductors) refractive order Nc utron density ion density

Principal Quantum Number True Schc inle s Density) Impulse Perator Electric Dip Torque

G

G

unit

G

m- l m- I

G

m1s 1

English designation

=1 =1

pac ki ng frac tio n the rmal e ffect ivity of a react or Newto nian co nstant ofg ravi tat ion (ci rcu lar) rec iproc al lau ice vector vibratio na l term local acc eleratio nof free fall degeneracy, statistical weig ht electron g-tac to r pro ton g-factor Hamilton funct ion hamilto nian ope rator co ulo mb integral resonance integra l Planck con stant principal moment of inertia quantum number of nucl ear spin indir ec t spin-spin cou pling con sta nt ion dose

= m 3k g - l, - 1

= m s- 2

=1 =1 =1

G

s «8p

= m 2k gs = m1kg s = m2kg s = m2 kg s = m 1kg s-

If

if

/ f AA / f AB

h 'A.'B ·' e I. J

Js kg rn :!

j

~

j KJ K

2

2 2 2

1

=1

= s- I

Hz Clk g Alk g m - :: \ - 1 Am - 2 Hz / V

JAB J

= kg - lsA

= kg- IA

, -,-

G y = J / kg = m-s G y / s = Jkg-I s- I = m1 s- · 1

K

= I.

k kr! "I ...

m- I

k I; . L M

JIK

Mu

"i. cih

M M2 m. M me mp Inn

mu

Base units

lI

N NA NE

= 1 kg / mo l kg / mo l Cm m m

= 1 kg kg kg kg / m ol

=1

No

mol -I r 1m - 3 sm - J m- J

NJ

m- J

Nw, g

fl 1 /

" $ ·"6

m- J

=1 =1

P m- I Js

= mkg s- I

PI'

Cm

= rn sA

Qu ad rupol momcnt

Q

e m :!

Kcmquudrupole rnoment z rta ll energy e. Kcr nreakt ion

Q Q

em :!

= m 2s A = m 2sA = m 2kg s- 2

q

m- 1s - 1

B rern use

Resistant to application factor (e. Dovis l De hye -Welle nzahl G iue rve ktor Kcnuudlus Mol are Gusko nvtunte Von- Kli tzing- Kon ... tame Ryd be rg-Kon stan te

I '

=1

p

Cf CfD

R.Ro

R R

RK R ""

= 1 m -I

m m J mol - 1K - 1

n

m- I

ke rma rate

rnulriplication factor d imen sionle ss no rmal coo rdi na te Bolt zman n co nstant qua ntum numbe rof ang ula r mo mentum mo lar mass mola r mass co nstant tra nsi tio n di pole mom ent m igr at ion leng th area of m igrat ion mag net ic q uant um nu mber elec tro n rest mass pro ton mass ne utro n ma ss unifi ed ato mic mass co nstant neutr on number Avogadro con stant den sit yof states spec tral den sity of vibratio nal modes acce ptor den sity (in a semi conductor! don or density

=1

m -.1

fl

ion do se rate parti cle flux den sit y curre nt den sit y o f electron s Jo sephso n co nstant Kinetic e nergy re leased in matter

order o f reflection numbe r concentration of neutrons numbe r co ncentration of ions principal q uantum numbe r p robab ility (de nsity) momentum operator

elec tric dipol e moment e ffic iency of retarda tio n quadrupole mo ment quad ru pole moment of a nucl eus dis integration energy of a nuclea r reactio n density of retar da tion rating factor Debye circular wavenumbe r latt ice vector radiu s of a nude us molar ga ... constant von Klitzing constant Rydbe rg con stant

3 Physics alic grilile

symbol

Unit

medium linear reach with middle musculature wide - flat related equi-weight location, basic state sub stance, equi-weight offset

R. R Rp • Rm

kg / m 2

; o, Ro Yo

01

average linear range o f action average range o f action per unit area equilibrium position vecto r

01

grou nd state distance

Yo

In

Zero point balance

r,

In

Probability tightness overlap sintegral linear braking vernogen

S SAB S Sa SOl

inte ratomic eq uilibrium dis tan ce zero-point average d istance probab ility cu rre nt density overlap integral effici enc y of line ar retardatio n efficiency of atomic retardation efficiency of retardatio n of mass lo ng range or de r pa ramet er hyperfine cou pling constant in sol ids total term electronic term kinetic energy operator tim e cons tan t of reactor half life relaxation time lo ngitudinal trans verse unified ato mic mas s constant lethargy displaycernent vecto r Bloc h functio n vib ratio nal quantum number avera ge loss of energy pe r ion pai r qua dr upo le interac tion energy tenso r io n dose, exposure ion dose powe r atomic nUI11 ~ r

atomic burning

Ma ssenb rernernverrnogen Fcrno ordistance parameter Hype rtein coupling constant - in solid form Total energetic rm e lck tronic energy eterm kinetic energy operuto r React to rzcitko nstante half-life relaxation time - longi tudin al - tra ns mare t Lethargic, lied. Ene rgic ma6

01

- 2s- 1 01

Jim

= 1 = mkgs - 2

T

Hz

= s -l

T

01 - 1

t; T

= m.t kgs - 2 J ml J m2kg- 1 = m ~ s -2 = 1

01- 1

T T1 / 2, 11/2 TI

T2 and "'and

kg

(O rts-) displacement vector

II

01

Bloc b-Funkrion Vibration qua ntenza hl avg. Loss of energy per ion pair of quadrupole alternating active energy tensor ion dose ion dose isle is an ordinal number. Load number

"k (;)

Fine structure constant

a a

Recombination coefficient MADELllN G constant spin wave function Qua drupole change effect so r load defe ct Centrifugal force correct ur constant need surplus, mass effect Rc lat iver mass surplus

Chernian shift. NMR elec trical field cons tunte high-speed coil actuator neutron yield per abso rptio n halves width. Nivea ubrcire Spe z, gamma ray constant

= 1 m- J / :!

= I.

= m:! kgs - 2 = m 2kg s -2

Wi, (W)

X

C / kg A / k g

X

X

= 1 m - '/ s

=1 =1

" ,. \.1

", Il X

J

L '>

kgm :!

L '> J .L'> JK L '> m

kg

01- 1

= I = 1

L '> r .I

Flm

£0

=1 =1

I.

'/ n

r r

y y.

Asymmetric parameters Residual probability Compton waves long radioactive zeroing constants Linear attenuation coefficients t atomic attenuation coefficient Mass weakening coefficient Bohr magneton magneton

K

J

:; m-kg s-2

C m 2 / kg

r

x It

ILa

lIm / iN v

Transition frequency "L

Transition waves number of anharmonicity cons tan te harmonic oscillation swcl lenza hl Debye crisis frequency

'"'" "'D

English denomination

tine stru ctur e constant coe fficient of recombination Mudelung constant quadrupole inte ractio n energy ten sor ine rtia l defec t ce ntrifugal dis tortion constants mass excess: muss defect relative mass excess chemical shift electric constant hig h-speed fission factor yie ld of neutrons level wid th, half-power wid th specific gamma ~ ray constant mag netog yric ratio G riineisen pa rame ter asymmetry param eter rest propabilh y

(I).: R ...

.... «S Q)

: E: r ...

Q)

01

Compton wavelength

s- I

decay (ra re) constant reject io n ratio ato mic rejection ratio

"C

.c ....

01 - 1

Bohr mag neton nuclear magneton y ield of neutrons transition frequency Larmo r frequency transition wavenumber vibrational anharmonicity con stant harmon ic vibratio n waven umber

s- I

Dchyc ci rcular frequency

,

=1

01-

m:! Jkg

Jrr Jrr

= m:! A = m:! A

= 1 Hz

Larrnor frequency

= m 2 kg- l s A

=1 =1 =1

/ I

icC

liB

= kgsA

=1

Z

G yrornugneti sches Verhalm is Grunisen-Purametc r

Neutron yield

Basic units

Hz m- I 01-1

= s- I = s- I

:: s C'O

:: s

«

Absorption curve

4

Phyxikulix of the same size

Sy mbol

Larmo r circuit frequency

WL

s- I

Fluen z, phoronic space irradiation



m

Energy Lue nz Particle Flux Density. Photons with strong ambient irradiation wave function energy flux, room irradiation, energy flux density. Space protection is strong

if!

if!

unit

J / m 2 m -2 s-1

> / J> / J

(m- J f2 j

Quanta rnech. Electron density

Q

Effective cross-section density close-up parameters Symmetry number Effective cross-section cut-off constant. NMR relaxation time Qu ad rupolmornent

E a a a "A r

(-)

X-ray litter

e.1J

Magnetizability Coriolis constant (for rotary spectra)

~ {

radiated energy per unit are a particle flux density

m- J / 2

'"

Q

Larmor ci rcu lar frequency radiat ed particles per unit area

- -,

J / m 2 W / m 2

Well enfunkticn reactivity

C m- J m- I

r, '

wavefunctio n

= kg s -2

energy ftuence

= kg s-y

energy flux density

=1

react ivity

=1

charge den sity of elec trons effective cross-sectioniul area density short range order parameter

wave fun ct ion

= m- -'SA

= m - 1kg- 1s2

symmetry number effecti ve co llisio n cross section sh ield ing constant relaxation time quadrupol e moment Bragg an gle

m-

=1

s

C m2 rad J / T2

=1

= (A sm) 2 / kg

magnetizability

= I.

Co rio lis zeta constant

(alpha) Alpha particles, iHe radiation. Unsure. Italicized. m «= 6.644 655 98.10- 27 kg = 4.001506174 7 u = 7 294.299 508'Ine = 3.972 599 6846 'In p'; '5.97191897.10- 10 J,;, 3727.37904 MeV = 4.0015061747.10- 3 kg / mol Q

Absor ption curve Flux density-layer thickness curve, for assessing the * radiation effect on different. Absorber. 1) a-radiation: the relative flux density / 0 sounds within the mean range R m to 50% abo (R) is Z-shaped. The specific Ionization d N / dx reaches a maximum at a certain layer thickness x. 2) Proton radiation: analog a radiation. 3) fJ radiation: the flux density Ig (in m- 2 s- l) sounds with increasing mass coverage XQ (in kg / m 2) linear (fJ-Stahler), then crooked (Brern sstrah ler) abo 4 y-radiation : the flux density Ig sounds linear with increasing layer thickness x ("" ​​em) materia labhiingig linear abo 5) Neutron radiation: the flux density Ig sounds linear J! Q (fast neutrons) or reaches with increasing layer thickness x (some dm in paraffin) a maximum (slow neutrons). AES Auger Electron Spectroscopy; Atomic emission spectroscopy (* OES)

Activation analysis Trace analysis. Elements through artificial nuclear conversion into a radioactive isotope and measurement of its radiation. Act iv itat "radioactivity

Eng lish terms

Basic units

Alkali metal element of group I of the * PSE (arab. Al kalj a = plant ash); very reactive, easily ionizable, reaches the noble gas shell by releasing its valence electron; Base builder. Allo trop ie crystallography: appearance of a substance in different Structures (* modifications), depending on temperature and pressure; E.g. carbon as diamond, graphite, fullerenes, carbon black. Allotropy of iron. 769 ° C Curie-9 11 ° C

a-Fe; =

Point

;=

1392 ° C

y-Fe; =

8-Fe

1536 ° C

;=

Melt

Equivalent dose * Dosimetr. G rolie in radiation protection. Detects the biological dose, i. H. the relative biolog. Effectiveness of an "absorbed dose" on living tissue.

IH = qD I

Sv = J / kg

D • absorbed dose to tissue tG y = J / kg) 1. / biological weight factor (D im. I) 1: for 11-. y o. Rontg en radiation

2 - 5: 10 : 10 - 20 :

tur thcr mix (lanas ame t Ncut ronc n c- struhtung. st: hncile neutrons / protons for high-energy ions

The evaluation factor or quality factor q for evaluating the biolog. Effect is for various Radiation types, energies and irradiation conditions are set in such a way that the following applies: same equivalent dose SI unit: Obsolete!

= same radiation risk

I Sv (SIEVERT) = I J / k g = I m 2 / s2 I rem = 0.01 Sv = 0.0 1 J / kg

Mean eff. Equivalent dose per capita - by natiirl. and medicine. Radiation exposure - approx. 3 mSv per year. See * radiation exposure.

Atomic mass unit (u)

5

Equivalent dose list Aquil'llie / ltdosisrale. "Dosirn etr, size. The product of the absorbed dose rate and the weighting factor.

I.

if = lf- = iJ q

I.

Sv / s = W / k g

Dose rate equivalent

= Dosi s without shielding fH A / r 2

+ Attenuation factor e - 1'- '+ dose build-up factor Bt x. E).

rl Activitar of the QueUe. r distance. us: relaxation bar

Radionuclide

Do sislei stungskcn stunt e

(only for y radiation)

ru

sv m ~ h -I Bq - I

1-131 Cs · 137 Ra-226 Co-60 Na-24

0.55.10- 13

0,77-10- 13

2.14 · IO- 1J 3.36 · IO- IJ 4.72 · IO- 1J

Sv / s = 0, 0 I Wlk g. = 0.01 Sv / a = 0.01J / lkg a). Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) Intrinsic analysis method. especially for heavy metals (such as Cd, Zn, Cu. Ni, Cr. Ag, ".). I rem / s I erultet] = 0.01

I rem / a

F · AAS Flammen-AAS, furnace = Oren GF · AAS Grufi trohr-Aa .S. gratirefurnace HG-AAS Hydridtechnik CV-AAS Kaltd amp ftechni k, cold vapor 1) Flame n-AAS. The analysis solution is evaporated and ionized in the acetylene gas long burner; that arise. Plasma absorbs the radiated light from a hollow cathode lamp (for each element character, wave length), the light monitoring is proportional to the concentration (Lambert-Beer law), universal for analyzes in the ppm range; No trace analysis due to incomplete atomization and short residence time in the flame. Cannot be used below 190 nm because the oxygen in the air and flame gas break down by themselves. The following cannot be determined directly: Halogen e, Se, C. gaseous elements. The sample must be drawn up; grained metals are to be opened. Ox id ation levels are not distinguishable; hence As (V), Sb (V), Setl V). Te (IV) etc. - which absorb weakly or not at all - reduce beforehand. 2) G rafi trough AAS. For trace analysis. high detection limit n. Microgram amounts are n atomized in a graphite tube for 1-2 s flameless, the

Atomic absorption gauges.

Solids are placed on a L 'vov plau fo rn inside the pipe, which is heated up by radiant heat from the pipe wall. Atomization takes place with a time delay, but advantageously in a thermally largely stabilized gas atmosphere.

Purge gas argon prevents the electrically heated graphite tube from burning off (approx. 10 V. 500 A. 3000 K). 3) hydride technology. For parental determinations with

volatile hydrides (As. se, Bi. s-, Te. Sn, etc.). The sample is hydrogenated (with NaBH4 or SnCl2); the metal hydride is atomized in a heated glass civette: the atomic absorption is measured. Interfering Cu and Ni are complexed with t-cysteine ​​or the hydrides are driven out in a hydrochloric acid solution. 4) Ka ltda m pftec hnik. Determination of mercury analogous to the hydride technique; Reduce sample, drive mercury stew into a civette. possibly enrich in gold gauze; Measure atomic absorption. 5) Underlying co r re ctu r, underbalancing absorption by the fuel gas. Scattering from undamaged purticles and dissociation continua of the alkali metal compounds mask the useful signal. Correct the continuous background absorption by alternating measurements with a line source (hollow cathode lamp) and a continuum source (deuterium or halogen lamp). Useful signal = line radiation (with background) Continuous radiation (only background) Zeeman correction (with GF-AAS); also for discontinuous subsoil (e.g. rotation fine structure). In a strong pulsating magnetic field (0.8 T; 54 Hz) parallel to the direction of radiation, the absorption line splits into two ± 10 pm adjacent side lines. Useful signal extinction without field (with V.) - extinction with field (only background) 6) Standard addition. Known amounts of an internal standard are added to the analysis sample and the extinction E measured bx + a intersects the x-axis at point Xo = - a / b. the desired concentration. Atomic system of units Han ree system with the basic units: drilling radius, electron dimensions, initial running time. This means that the spin pulse of the electron =! L / 2 and the path rehimpu ls =! L (first drilling path). he eats HARTREE. The unit of energy, e2 .2 Eh = 47T coao = 2R ooh c = ex m «

=

= 4,359,743 8 1 yr

= 2625.50kJ / mol = 4.850 86919 · 10-.15 kg = 219 ~ 74 .6.11 3710 cm - 1 = 6.579 683 920 735.1 0 15 Hz = 3.1577-16 5.105 K

= 27.2 11 383 .J eV

= 2.921262304 · 10- "u See also" natural units. Atomic mass unit (u) (uni fi ed) atomic mass unit. Mass of any particle, atom or molecule in relation to Ili 2 of the mass of the carbon-1 2-atom. According to the IVPAC definition, a 12C atom weighs 12 atomic units. _ _ / II (12C) _ 10- 3 kg / mol I u - / l l u - - 1-2- NA



Alom binding Table 1.1

6

A to rnare unit sys te rs according to H ART RE E.

Great

Atomic unit (a.u.)

Long electron wet orbital speed

I Bohr =

Ul)

I 3 .U. Mass ::: 1 a.u. Time I 3 .U. Speed: ;;;

me

hl Eh aOEhlh

Speed ​​of Light

137J) 4 a.u. =

ch l ao Eh

Kraft Impui s energy

I a.u. Force = I a.u. Impulse s = Han ree :::

Ehl ao! Jl ul) ..,., Eh = / I- Imetll)

=

effect

3 .U.

Charge Electr. Electricity

Charge-tight electrical, potential electrical field EI. Fe ldg radient electrical dipole moment EI. Q uadr upo lmo me nt EI. Polarizability I. Hyperpolarizability.

a.u. I. Hypol. =

2. Hype rpol ar izability it.

possibly 2. Hypol. = a.u. Flux density ::: 3. U. Dipo lmo ment ::: a.u. Magnetization :::

=

Magn, Dipolmornent Mag netisie rbarkeir Pe rm utivitat

I u

= Imu} ~ g

;; (l1i ~ i- J eV

:, {m uc 2} J

=

3 .U.

By means of centricity

=

= 931 .494 OIJ MeV = 1.492417 78 · IO- to J = 8.98 755 .10 10 kJ / mol = 7.513 006658./0 t2 em-I

= 1.0809528 101.1 K

'"299 792 .5 kmls'" X.23X 7 .IO- HN' "1.992 9. IO ~ 2 ~ N s" '4.J 59 8 · IO- IH J' "1.054 6 · 1O- .1 ~ J s

'"1.6022.10 - 1" e' "6.6 23 6 · 10 - .1 A '" 1.0XI 2 · I Ot2 e / m .1

l'Eh / h

"Iail

'" "' "' '" '"

Eh / "Eh /" ao

£ h / t'a {~

,

eUl)

t '~ ii ..,

e-ai / Eh ".1) IE 2 o ~ ,, ~ aJ ~ Eh hl" aij ell / me = 2 / -lB e2 ,, (~ / mc ,, 1l ao Eh

27. 21 1 V 5. 142 2. lO t l Vi m 9.7 17 4. 102 t V / m 2 8,478 4 · 10 - .10 m 4.486 6 · 10 - ~ (} m 2 '"1.648 X · IO- ~ I e2m2 / J"' 3 .2064.10 - 5.1 e 3 m · 1 / J2

e e

'"6.235 4. 1O- ~ 5 clm ~ / J · l'" 2.3505.10 5 T '"1.8548.10 - 23 JIT'" 7.X91 0 .10- 2 "JIT 2 '" 1. 112 7.10 - 10 F / m

2) Polar Alom Binding. * Atom Binding. where the ge me insa me Elckt ron en -

:, 6.022 141 99.102 ~ u

In the end, u will also be called DALTON (Da),

A tombi n d u ng also: covalent bond; Electron pair bond or homopolar bond, formation of common electron pairs (= binding molecular orbitals); In the case of the polar A to binding to the electronically more negative atom, verse s.



= l -: 'Ia.u.

'"2.4 18 9.10 - 11 s'" 2.IX7 7.10 6 m1s

Molecular crystal liver band with ionic fractions (e.g. Na s in quartz glass). Mixed atom and ion bonds in complex compounds; z. B. K4 [Fe (C N) 6].

= 3,423 177 709 .10 7 Hartree

z. B.

'"5,291 8 · 10- t t m"' 9. 109 4. 10- .11 kg

Ge, quartz, hard materials. Gliiser are .. supercooled liquids "; amo rp he r

= 2,252 342 733. 102.1 Hz

-+

= ~; r Fl) /) 1 / m ~ e1

g glass-like; extremely hard. brittle, sluggish, plastic deformable; very high melting and boiling points, not very iterate. mostly o ptic see-through. Example w ith G iller Energie (kl lmo l): Diamant (7 18). S iC (1185). BN. s i,

= 1,660 538 73.10- 27 kg

Nic htme tal lato rne (electroneutra l)

Value in SI-S ystcm

n

Effect :::

Elementary charge; :: 3 .U. Current a.u, Lad .d. = 3 .U. cl .Po t. ::: a.u, field strong a .u. el. field large = 3. U. Dipo lrnornent e a.u. Q uad r.rno ment = a. and polarizing =

Mag n. Flux density

definition

Molec ul.

+ · QI ---- + H-QI

Directed quantum mechanical exchange forces (valence forces); Binding energy Ibi s 7 eY. 1) Steffe with Alom binding. Molecules are volatile or macromolecular; easy to deform plas tic (thermoplastics good); Low melting point, no headers, mostly colorless - clear, example: C02. H2. Br2. C H4. Ben zol •. Strength. Plastics. Atomic lattice (valence crystal): stable. multifac h coor d ined e. regular room structures; d iam ant - ode r

pair of strong non-metallic (electronically negative) atoms is different, e. B. with chlorine water sto ff, water. On mo nia k. H H - + Cll s Be i polar cn molecule Ulen is the dipole moment (..Binding mandrel ") permanently ent. Induced by unpolar. Polar m olecc ul Uupolurcs Mnlekul

u = qr

em

I i i = & "'0 E

1 / Ladu ng (e l. R Bindun gxldngc lin t It Dipclmoment. A ~ IO-! ~ 1: 01 · 'Potarivicr barkeitsvohnne n.

Q uantenmec han. Describing the polarity by means of a li near com b inat ion of an er tictive n cova le nte g re nce structure (A-B) and a fictional ionic (A 8 B $). IjJ AI!

= a

ljJ ~ ovaknl

+ b ljJinni ", h

a and b are varied in such a way that the energy of the molecule is minimal (* approximation methods). PAULING equation: The deviation of the mean value of the measured binding energies for A-A and B-B from the actual binding energies is a mall for

Atomic model, Bohr's

7

the ionic part of the atomic bond A-B. EAB - EM EBB "" 126 kl / mol (EN A - ENB) 2 EN = "electronegativity. 3) Theory of atomic bonding. A diatomic molecule is described as a spring-mass system with a harmonic potential (binding" molecular orbital). See * UV spectroscopy.

t

V (r - r e)

= ~ D (r - r e) 2

In the potential minimum, the attraction or repulsion force F (r) = O. An n-atomic molecule has f degrees of freedom of vibration, the natural energies of which are drawn in the potential diagram V (r) as horizontal lines. D dissociation energy. re equilibrium distance.

Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) Excitation of atoms in a plasma (arc, glow discharge, spark discharge, hollow cathode) and analysis of the emission lines. Electrons are excited, occupy higher shells and fall back into lower levels when light is emitted. FES OES ICP MIP

Flame emission spectroscopy, opr ical emission spectroscopy ie, spectral analysis of inductively coupled plasma. Microwave Induced Plasma

Application: Spectral analysis of carbon and alloy elements in steel (with OES). Iron sends out around 3000 lines, chrome 1000, which are compared with reference spectra. The brightness of the lines is proportional to the concentration of the element in the sample. Depth profile analysis through layer-by-layer removal of the sample surface (carhodes dusting).

Atomic nucleus center of mass of the atom; see Rutherford's * atomic model. Built from the same type of building blocks, because the radioactive decay creates similar daughter nuclei (e.g. lead and helium atoms from radium atoms). Atomic nucleus density The density of the nucleus substance is with nuclear mass mK (in kg) and atomic nucleus volume VK:

Atomic nucleus radius estimate from the radius of a nucleon and the mass number A.

I rK

= 1.4.10-15 m · .yA

Atomic mass Relative atomic mass A, (dimension I). mass of a nuclide X related to the atomic mass unit u. See table * elements.

A, (X) = m (X) = u

m (Xl

1/12 m (LC)

The atomic masses of the elements tabulated in the periodic table are average masses of the natural isotope distribution; therefore a deviation from the integer * mass number A. Example: Argon. ! sUIOp

Frequency H

Nuclide mass A,

Ar-36, Ar-38 A, -40

0.337 '? C

35.96754621i

0.063'7
84 are unstable. "Stability of the atomic nucleus.

Nuclear physics isomer: atomic nucleus with various states of excitation; E.g. 11 6In *. The surplus is given off as y-radiation.

Isomorphism Crystal ogra fie: Substances of the same type replace each other in the crystal lattice and form mixed crystals; E.g. alum e.

Isospin

i

C h a ristic vector of "elementary particles (see there); is retained in the case of the strong interaction, bc in the electromagnetic WW only the third component!}.!} = + II :! be in the prot on. 13 = _II :! be in the neutro n.

=

III

isotope

[Greek iso = equal, top os = place, place]. Nuclide of the same element, same chemical properties, chemically inseparable; same atomic number Z; different number of neutrons or number of masses A.

IH 2H 7Li l iB 12C 13C 14 N 15N 16 0 17 0 ISO 19F 23Na 2SSi 29Si 31P J2S 3JS .14S 35C1 37C1 79Br SIBr

relative

Before grain n

Core-

At omrn asse

in %

spin

1.007825 2.0140 7.01600 11.0093 1

99,985 0.0155 92,58 80.3 98.89 1.108 99.635 0.365 99,759 0,037 0,204 100 100 92,21 4,70 100 95.0 0.76 4,22 75.53 24.47 50.54 49.46

1/2 I 3/1

12, סס OO

13,00335 14,003074 15.00011 15,99491 16,99913 17,99916 18,9984 22,9898 27,97693 28.97649 30.97376 31.97207 32,97146 33,96786 34,96885 36.96590 78.9183 80.9163

)/2

0 1/1 I 1/1 0 1/2 5/2 1/2 3/2 0 1/2 1/1 0 3/1 0 3/1 3/2 "/ 2

3/ 2

Use of isotopes in technology: Isotopic marking of c he mical compounds, geological and biological * age determination, * activation analysis, radiation sources in technology and medicine.

Isotope rule, Aston's elements with an odd order number have n a maximum of two stable isotopes; "Stabi litat d. Atomic nuclei.

Isotope separation Isotopes have slightly different physical properties; chemically inseparable. • Gas diffusion: 235UF6 diffuses faster than 238 UF6 through a membrane. • Gas centrifuges: heavy molecules (e.g. 238UF6) migrate outwards, the easier ones gather inside the ore cylinder. Application: Enrichment of U-235 for nuclear fuel rods. • Separation pipe process (C LUSIUS pipe): heavy molecules collect in the colder part of the heating wire pipe, lighter ones in the hotter part (thermal fusion). The convection flow of the gas filling carries the light molecules upwards, the heavy ones downwards. • Electrolysis of water: heavy water 020 sam-

e "C :: s ~

C'O

.c 'to-

:: s

«

32

Isotype melts look. while some H20 is preferentially decomposed. • fractional distillation of light and heavy water. • * Mass spectroscopy • Spectroscopy: Spectral lines and bands of the isotopes are slightly shifted from one another. Isotype Kristallogratie: Two substances crystallize in the same lattice type: z. B. table salt, CsF. AgCl. PbS. Jablonski diagram JABLONsKI term scheme. Representation of the relevant electron, oscillation and rotation states of a molecule and its excited states - plotted as horizontal lines inside and next to each other on the energy axis (ordinate). Arrows symbolize Uberg ange. * Electron Spectroscopy. long lines: short lines:

electronic states (v

= O. j = 0) Vibration levels (u == O. 1.2....)

• Vibration relaxation = thermal equilibration (vibrational relaxation): radiationless deactivation in the same electronic state; thus change of the visual oscillation quantum number. Example: 52 (V = 3) -> 52 (V = 0). • Internal conversion (internal conversion. IC): radiationless deactivation through isoenergetic change in the electronic state = Weehsel into a deeper electron shell with a higher level of visual vibration (without energy change). Example: 52 (V = 0) -> 51 (v = 5) Otherwise visual oscillation relaxation is possible. • Inter-combination (intersystem crossing. ISC). Isoenergetic conversion from the singlet to the triplet state. Example: 5J {v = 0) -> TI (v = I). In addition, visual oscillation relaxation is possible. Josephson's constant Unsafe digits in italics.

x, =

of the electron state: the distances

Shortest lines decrease with increasing:

Arrow - crossed out

- wavy line

Vibration quantum number and rotation level (j 0.1.2....); the distances increase with the number of proportional quanta j. Unpredictable. mostly not drawn. Radiation transfer

=

Conventional value (CIPM, January 1st, 1990).

KJ-90 = 483597.9 GHzIY [exactly] Conversion of SI volts into conventional volts V90 (based on the JOSEPHSoN effect). KJ.-I! O V V 90 = --- xl

forbidden hiding of radiationless transition (relaxation)

1) suggestion. UVIYIS-Lieht lifts an electron from the ground state 50 (v O.j 0) to an excited singlet state 5 within 10-15 s; (v 1 = O.j 1 = 0). the

=

=

Is stable for 10-11 to 10-7 s. In the case of very heavy elements (mercury), direct excitation into a triplet state is possible, but rare. • Singlet state (50.51 .52....). Outermost electrons with antiparallel spin (in the same or separate orbitals). Diamagnetic molecule, no resulting spin moment; see * MO theory. • Triplet state (TI .T2 •...). Outermost electrons with parallel spin. Paramagnetic spin moment. No ground state To for s orbitals (PAULl principle). Triplets are lower in energy than singlets and are stable for up to seconds. 2) deactivation. The following deactivation processes are competing: • Fluorescence: radiation emission with transition to a lower singular state: 5; +1 -> 5; . In the case of preceding relaxation, the wave is always longer than the absorption. Transitional prohibition: Spin reversal is prohibited (untrustworthy)! See * selection rule. • Phosphorescence: radiation emission from the triplet state (TI -> 50). Go ahead suggestion. Intersystem crossing. Visual vibration relaxation. • Luminescence: umbrella term for fluorescence and phosphorescence. • Photo reaction: the electrically excited molecule reacts to form products.

~ = 483597.898.10 9 Hz / V

Characteristic dose rate "Dosimetric size of a radiation source. 1) Radiation diagnostics with X-ray and gamma rays 100 (ie ::: 100 kev), the lem: air-kermal power without scattering bodies in the axis of the useful radiation bundle at a distance of 1 meter from the source with a field size of 10 em x 10 em is generated. 2) Radiation protection: with X-ray / gamma rays: photon equivalent dose rate iI x \ 00. 3) For X-ray, gamma and electron radiation units: maximum value of the water energy dose rate Dloo. Measured in a water or water equivalent phantom with a flat entry surface (without Scatter body, distance 1 meter. Field gravel 10 em x 10 em).

x,

Ceramic Non-metallic materials: porcelain, stoneware. Earthenware, sehamot, etc. Stable metal-non-metal compounds of the elements Mg. B. AI. C. si, Ti, z., N. o, etc .; complex crystal lattices with ionic and covalent parts and high binding energy. • Oxides: SiOz. Ah03, Ti02 • Carbides: SiC. WC • Nitrides: Si3N4. BN characteristics: hard. brittle, little tensile strength: wear-resistant, high temperature resistant, formerly resistant, production: by sintering powders. Standardization of ceramics and glasses

C.

HP

Ceramics, e.g. B. C-IIO

hot-pressed ceramics. z. B. HPSiN

Nuclear fusion

33

Table I.J Nuclear fusion: mechanisms of energy production in the sun. At the high temperatures, the atoms are ionized in a plasma. Pro ton cycle at approx. 10 million "C: H $

2x l

: H $

+

~ He2EP

+

2xl

: H $

+

fD $

iHe281

TD $ +

Ye $ + Ve

~ Hey $ 2

~ H e2 $ + 2: H $

Energy 1.44 MeV

5.49 MeV 1 2. ~ 5

MeV

26.72 MeV

4: H $

I.

2580 GJ

Shorter duration 14 billion. Yes, 0.6 sec.

I million years

per helium nucleus per mole of helium

Bethe-Weizsacker cycle t CNO cycle) at approx. 50 million, "C; atomic charges neglected.

:H

'; C.

+

: H: H

1.95 MeV

'; C + Ye $ + ve

2.22 MeV

7 minutes

'in

7.54 MeV

2.7 million Year e

7.35 MeV

.120000 years

2.71 MeV

'in

'i'N + 11e $ + Ve

82 sec.

~ H 187W + 20 p + 35 n

Klitzing constant "Von-Klitzi ng-Konstant e Carbon equivalent criterion for weldability of steels, carbon-free steels are not weldable Pinch zone and crack formation during cooling. Alloy elements intensify this effect (Solder carbide). CE V =% C + ~ +% (C r + SMO + V) +% (Ni + Cu) 15 < oa5,.,="">< 0.60="" '7.=""> 0.60 %

167 Me V 10Me V X Me V 5 MeV 5 Me V 5 MeV

Line spectrum for nuclear transformations and radioactivity processes when excited nuclei emit y-quanta from discrete quanta. See "Res onanzabsorpti on," Mo Bba uer- Effe kt.

Kcmspindreh impu ls

- lnlH

= y nllttl HI

"'I

200 MeV

Core spectrum

- in the z-direction

£,

Technical use for "Kernsp inre sonan z.

Heavy atomic nuclei (A> 130) decays into large fragments; in contrast to "nuclear reactions. • Spontaneous nuclear fission: extremely heavy nuclei burst without prior absorption of particles. • excited nuclear fission: the nucleus captures a neutron, which decays formed compound nuclei. The asymmetrical split from U-235 delivers products with mass numbers 90-100 and 133-143, as well as an average of 2.5 neutrons.U-235 is split by fast and slow neutrons (6.5 MeV), U- 238 absorbs medium-speed neutrons (fission energy 7.0 Me V; unsuitable as fission material).

2J1U + ~ n --->

= suu «I / l / n

lit, = gNl 'Nllt l

I, nll.i., max = y IJ I = gNll. N I m, = o. ± I. ± 2 • .. .. ± 1 £ =

- in z-direction

17R 2 11 249

=

Iln l l y III l / n l. / 1 = y Ii

good weldable (with advance / warning treatment) hard weldable (with uustenitis chcn electrodes)

Complex compound A coordination compound consists of: • Central atom: metal, halide metal or non-metal: with an electron limit (so-called Ls wt s-Snure). • Ligands: atoms or groups of atoms linked to the central atom by atomic bonding with free electron pairs (= Lawt s base). 1) Hybridization. The one electron pairs of the ligands occupy the free d orbit The central atom, ie the binding pair of electrons comes entirely from the ligand: the central atom reaches a stable noble gas configuration (18-electron rule) in the case of gross smog l. overlap of the orbitals along the symmetry axis of the hybrid orbita le. The ligands repel each other maxi ally and arrange themselves sy mme trically around the central atom. Theory vg. "High -S pin-Ko mple x, "Low-S pin- Complex." Crystal field and • league n field theory. 2) Nomenclature of complex compounds I. Alphabetically enumerating ligands, acidic residual anions ending in -0; if the bus is between two centra lato-

Coordination number

39

men with intent) 1.-.

group

as a ligand as a substituent (complex compounds) (organic compounds)

NJ NH NH1 NH} NHO H

Azido Imido Amido

N c u t fa I

Ani on i s ch Cle CN e Fe He OH e

hydridehydroxo-

NO ~

nitro-

H10 NO

aquanitrosyl

N1 H}

oxo-

NH3

arnrnin-

N1H ~

chloro-

carbony l-

CO

cyanofluoro

0 19

2nd admonitor: if the name is longer, the ligand is in round brackets.

simple ligands

complicated ligands

mono .. d i-

3 4

tritetra-

5 6 7 8

pentu

hexa hepta octa-

bistristerakis pentaki shexak ishepta kisoctaki s-

3. Sci compl exanions: ending - £ II. 4. Osidation level of the central atom: as a Roman number in round brackets.

Nomenclature of ligands and radicals Group H F OF CI CIO C101 CI0.1 C 10 4 Br I 10 10 1 ICI1

°

01 OJ H10 OH OH1 S HS 52 SO S01 50J HSO J 111S S103 504

se Se O Se01 SeO} SeO ~

Te N

Nl

as a ligand as a substituent (complex compounds) (organic compounds) hydride

Fluoro

Fluo r fluoroxy

C hloro Hypochlorite Chlorito Chlorato Perchloruro Bromo Iodo

Oxo Peroxo, Hyperoxo Aqua Hydroxo Hydroperox o Th io. Sul fido

Mercapro Disulfide Sulfur Dioxide Sultit o Hydrogen Sultuo

Thio sultoto-S. -0 Sultato Selene

Chl or Chlo rosyl Chloryl Perchloryl Brorn

N1 HS NO N01 NO} N101 P H1 P PH} PO PS PH202 PHO} PO ~

P1 H10S P101

Ammin

A mmonio H 3 N ~.

Hydro xylarnido-O Hydroxylamido-N Hydra zido Hydrazi n Hyd razinium

Aminooxy -ON H1 hydroxyamino -NHOH hydrazino

Nitrosyl Nitro (Nitrito-N) Nitrito-O Nitrd!

Nitroso

Dihydrog enphosphido phosphine

Nilro-N01 Nitrosooxy -D-NO Nitrato Phosphintri yl Phosphine Phosp honio 11., p $ Phosp horoso OP Phosphory l OP ", Thiophosphoryl

Phosphinato Phosphonato

Phosphate Diphosphonato Diphosphato

AsO ~

A rsenate

Carbonyl thioearbonyl carboxyl carbon dioxide carbon disulfide Carbamoy l

Carbamato or Merhoxo

Methanolato Ethoxo or Ethanolato Met hylthio or Methanthiolato Ethylthio or

Carbonyl Thioearbonyl Carboxy Carboxylate Dithioc arbox ylato Car bamo yl Carbarnoyioxy Metho xy Etboxy

lod lodo so lod yl dichl oriod Oxo, Ox y, Oxide

C1 HSS

Dioxy Trioxy Oxon io H10 $ Hydrox y

CN

Ethunthiclato Cy ano

OC N

Cy ur uno-O

ONC

Fulminates

SCN

Th iocyanato-S

Thiocyanate -SCN

Isothiocyan ato

Isothioc ya nato

= Th iocyanato-N

- NCS Sclen ocyanato

Hydroperoxy

Thio -S>, Sultido _Se. Thioxo S = Me rcapto. Thiol Dithio -S-SSultinyl

Sulphonyl Sulphonate -SO f Sull'o (110) 0 1SSulfonic H.:!SlB_ Sutfonyldiox y -0-S01-0Se lene - SeSe lenoxo See Sclen inyl

CHiS

Isocyanato

Meth ylth io Erhyl thio

Cyan -CN. Isocyan-NC Cyanato -DCN Isocyanaro -NCO

Telluro Nitrilo Nss Azo-N = NAzino = N- N = Diazo = N .., Diazonio: N ~

(1) .-

.... m) ",.

SeCN

Selenocyunato lsoselcno cyanato

CO}

Curbonato

HCOJ CHJ C01 CH 3CO

Hydrogen carbon uto A cetmo

C10 ~

Acetyl oxalato

-secn

Isose lenocyunato - NCSe Carbonykl ioxy - O-CO-QAc ​​etoxy

Acet yl

Selenonyl

Selenite Selenate Telluro Nitride Distickstotf

III

Hyponitrito Phosphide

CO CS COOH CO2 CS1 H1 NCO H1 NC 0 1 CHJO C1 HSO

Azido Imino Amino

Coordination number Complex chemistry: number of ligands (neighboring atoms) around a central atom. which to him a mogl. klcine n and equally spaced. Explains the spatial structure of a complex; See "Hybridisierung. KZ 4: Tetrahedron r, separately: Square.

(1)

~ )",.

(1)

"C :::: J

m

.Q

'I-

:::: J

«

Body dose

40

KZ 6: octahedron, KZ 8: cube. The larger the centralator and the smaller the ligands. the greater is the maximum number of coordinates. Typical coordination numbers: 2:

Nitrogen in Nitrition NO?

3: Sulfur in sulfite SO ~ e. N in nitrate NO ~ (..gr ~ Bes "Oxygenatc rn).

soi

e. Diamond lattice, sulfur in N in ammonium NHT (..small "H-AlOm).

4: 6:

Saline grid

8:

cubic-space-centered s Giller

12: closest packing of spheres

Body dose "Dosimetric quantity in radiation protection z. 1) Whole-length rdos is HG: mean value of the equivalent dose over the head, trunk. Upper arms and thighs when the body is considered to be homogeneously exposed to radiation Volume n of a body part or organ (with skin over the surface).3) Effective equivalent dose or effective dose H E: Sum of the with the associated stochastic weighting

Factors WT multiplied mean equivalent dose HT of relevant organs or tissues:

I.

HE

=

~ WT. H T

I.

Sv

= l / kg

Krista II solid with a certain outer shape (morphology) and a regular mole cul. Aulb au (structure). Substances with the same or similar. The crystal structure is differentiated by the lattice constants, ie the character, spacing of the lattice points. Depending on the ambient conditions, some substances appear in several mod ifi cations (forms of appearance) with different crystal structures. • Single crystal (monocrystalline) : Flawless crystal with a regular structure of ideal elementary cells. The real single crystal shows the lattice structure flaws and impurities. • Crystal aggregate (polycrystalline, polycrystalline): a body made up of many crystallites. • Crystallite or grain: Small crystal from 1 nm to 10 / lm in size (grain: up to Iern); in loose association (crystal powder) or linked together ('Gefii ge). Crystal field theory theory of the "complex compounds assuming pure e1 ektrostal. Binding forces between point-like ligands (which separate themselves) and the central atom (which attracts the ligands). Without real physics l. Importance.

but delivers qualitatively correct statements without great mathematical effort, for an improvement see * Liga nd field theory.

Crystal lattice space lattice; Crystal structure,

Crystal ography: The spatial, regular arrangement of the lattice bricks in the solid: determines the external shape and symmetry of the crystal. A distinction is made between the atomic lattice (e.g. diamond). Metal mesh (e.g. gold). Molecular lattice (e.g. iodine). Simply e girrer from the same kind. Particle (e.g. silver). Collapsed grids: superimposition of simple gilter (e.g. table salt). Structure of the crystal lattice 1. Symmetry elements: axis of rotation, mirror plane, inversion center. Rotating mirror live. 2. Crystal classes or point groups: Combination of the 4 symmetry elements into 32 classes. 3. Room groups: 230 types to describe the internal crystal structure including translation. 4. Unit cell or BRAVAIS-Gitler: smallest repeatable unit of a crystal lattice: a total of 14 different types, described by the atomic spacing of the coordinate axes and the angle between the crystal axes. • 7 primary grids: only the corner points are occupied. • 7 centered grids: in addition to the corner points, positions on the inside are occupied. The corner points e of the elementary cells in the crystal lie on a family of parallel network planes. 5. "Crystal system 6th network level = crystal lattice level: contains the crystal building blocks in a regular arrangement; defines the" founding constants as axis segments on the crystal axes; determined by three grid points that do not lie on a line n. Convention: forward, h right, C up. 7. Weijl -Jlldex: multiple s of the lattice constant en a .b .c (= axis intercept on the basis vectors). 8. Miller index: integer reciprocal values ​​h. k .l the white indices: Rauml. Location of the network levels.

a

Crystal lattice, reciprocal Girrer. Analogous to the vector description of the crystal lattice;: = u a + v h + we die vector. Description of the diffraction pattern. The BRAGG equation says nothing about the orientation of the bent X-ray chairs. but the vectorial network levels are probably spaced apart. Reciprocal lattice plane spacing (for II = I)

,. _ I _ 2s in!? .,

r

t:> -; ,, -

Reciprocal lattice vectors

ii- ./; •. 1 "": "B; I: ,,> i" \, '\. · ~ H) rc n d ..: .. n: J: iprof,; c: n Gin cr ..: Id.:. ./ ~ lilh: r "l ,: h ~ InJl l" c ",

plastic

41

Crystal structure analysis

Q (X.y .z)