Are there Mexicans who live in the Philippines

Information about the Philippines

History and politics

The famous Portuguese navigator Fernando Magellan discovered the archipelago in 1521. The oldest human finds in the Philippines are around 67,000 years old. In 1543 the archipelago was founded by the Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos after the then Spanish king, Philip II, in "Las Islas Filipinas" named. In the centuries that followed, the Philippines came under Spanish colonial rule. It was not until 1896 that the Philippine Revolution took place, which lasted two years and in its final phase was embroiled in the Spanish-American War.

On June 12th, 1898 Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippines from motherland Spain, which is why the country's national holiday has been celebrated on June 12th. However, since the victorious USA did not recognize the independence of the Philippines, the Philippine-American War ensued, which lasted from 1899 to 1902 and in which around one million Filipinos (approx. 20% of the population at that time) lost their lives.

The Japanese occupation in World War II (1942-1945) killed one million Filipinos. The liberation was achieved with the help of American forces and on July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially granted independence. Nevertheless, there were still some special economic rights for the USA and military bases, so that American influence in the Philippines can still be felt today.

From 1972 the Philippines were ruled as a dictatorial regime by Ferdinand Marcos, who was elected president in 1965. Nationwide demonstrations forced him to leave the country in 1986. As a result, Corazon Aquino, widow of the opposition leader Benigno Aquino, who was murdered in 1983, became the country's new president. Since a new constitution came into force in 1987, the Republic of the Philippines, the official name of the state, has been a presidential republic or a presidential democracy.

Nevertheless, there have been no stable democratic conditions since then, as coups are attempted again and again. Especially in the south of the country, there are still armed conflicts between separation movements, Islamist terrorist cells and government troops.

The sun in the Philippine flag stands for freedom, the eight rays of the same for the eight provinces of the country. The three stars on the flag symbolize the three main islands of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The motto of the country means translated into German "For God, the people, the nature and the land."

Size and population

With almost 300,000 km², the Philippines are around 60,000 km² smaller than the Federal Republic of Germany. The inhabitants of the Philippines are called Filipinos and, at 96 million, their number is greater than that of Germany. The capital is Manila, which with around 12 million inhabitants - the metropolitan area of ​​Manila even holds 21 million inhabitants - is also the largest city in the country. The largest group of the population are the Tagalog (about 28 percent), on whose language the official and national language Filipino is based.

language

The two official languages ​​of the Philippines are Filipino and English. In addition, there are over 170 regional languages ​​and dialects. Due to the colonial era, there are also Spanish influences.

geography

The Philippines are an archipelago (group of islands) located in the western Pacific. It consists of more than 7,000 islands, of which fewer than 1,000 are inhabited and only 1,000 are larger than 1 km². The country is roughly divided into three parts: the island of Luzon in the north, on which Manila is located, the Visaya archipelago and the island of Mindanao in the central part of the country and the Sulu islands in the south. The Philippines are located on the border of two continental plates sliding on top of each other, namely the Eurasian and Filipino. Because of this, the Philippines are frequently hit by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

The most active volcano on the island is the Mayon (2462m). It is located 330 kilometers from Manila on a southeastern extension of the main island of Luzon. The highest mountain in the Philippines is Mount Apo on the island of Mindanao at 2954 meters. In the east of the country, in the Philippine Sea, is the Philippinengraben, which at 10,540 meters is one of the deepest sea trenches in the world. Large parts of the country are very mountainous, but most of the residents live in the flatter coastal areas.

climate

Overall, the Philippines has a tropical, maritime climate. Characteristic for this are heat and high humidity. The average annual temperature in the Philippines is around 27 degrees Celsius. Although the country itself can be divided into several climatic zones, it is generally hottest from March to May.

From June to October there is the rainy season and between December and February is the coolest and driest season for Philippine standards. During the rainy season, strong typhoons rage, especially in the northern and eastern parts of the country. This also includes the super typhoon "Haiyan", which in November 2013 wreaked havoc on the archipelago at over 300 kilometers per hour.

environment

The biodiversity in the Philippines is one of the largest in the world. However, the ecosystem is seriously endangered by deforestation and the overexploitation of nature. Soil erosion occurs in mountainous regions, which leads to frequent flooding. On the coast, overfishing and the destruction of coral reefs lead to the extinction of many fish species, but small fishermen are also deprived of their livelihood. Overall, the Philippines are one of the hardest hit by the consequences of anthropogenic, man-made climate change.

economy

Despite its strong economic growth, the Philippines is a poor country and is classified as a developing country. The gross domestic product is $ 2,792 per capita per year. In comparison, people in Germany earn 43,952 dollars per person per year. The economy of the Philippines is divided into two parts: on the one hand there is a large service sector and a state-of-the-art electronics industry, on the other hand there is agriculture and subsistence farming.

This means that there is bitter poverty in rural areas, while there is a high level of prosperity in urban areas such as Manila. But the poverty-related rural exodus leads to slums being created in the shadow of large-scale industry. There is also an economic north-south divide: While there is a lot of export-oriented industry in the north, people in the more southern parts of the country live mainly from agriculture.

religion

With around 81 percent, Catholics form the largest religious group in the Philippines. In addition, around 5 percent of Filipinos profess other Christian beliefs. Another 5 percent of the population are Muslims who live mainly in the highland areas in the south. Christianity was introduced by Spanish colonial rulers in the 16th century. Islam, which began to spread as early as the 14th century, ended with the arrival of the Spaniards. Animistic religions are characteristic of the indigenous sections of the population. Sometimes these religions are still practiced today, but they are often fused with influences from Christianity and Islam.

Culture

In addition to recent American influences, the culture in the Philippines is particularly shaped by the Spanish colonial era. However, the culture of the Christian lowland people, which can be described as majority culture, is very different from that of the highland people, Filipino Muslims and Filipino Chinese. But there are also some traditional tribes that live in remote areas and are largely unaffected by Christian and Muslim influences.

Filipino cuisine combines Spanish-Mexican, Chinese, Japanese, Indian and American influences. In addition to the Christian festivals, most of the Filipino festivals and traditions have their roots in pre-colonial times despite centuries of foreign rule.