What is Nietzsche's opinion about sexuality

Right-wing populism: Friedrich Nietzsche


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Anyone who strolled along the banks of Lake Silvaplana in the Engadine in the summer of 1881 might meet a lonely stroller with a crazy look and a huge mustache that hid bad teeth: Friedrich Nietzsche, professor at the University of Basel and now "Fugitivus errans" like himself called, wandering refugee.

In search of a bearable climate, he traveled all over Europe. In the north of the Alps it is too cold for him in winter and too humid in Venice. In Genoa he is bothered by the "unsteady clouds". In Nice, the spring heat robs him of "the courage and strength of will". Postcards from his travels tell of incessant headaches and vomiting. He is always drawn to the Engadine.

Friedrich Nietzsche

Born in Saxony-Anhalt in 1844, he had a furious career as a classical philologist. In his mid-twenties he became a professor in Basel. After a few years he withdrew and, as a freelance philosopher, lived mainly on the donations of his friends. He suffered from illnesses throughout his life - some researchers suspect syphilis, others a brain tumor or dementia. In the last few years before his death in 1900, he could neither walk nor speak.

It was here that he developed his infamous concept of the superman. Here came his "heaviest thought", as he later called him, the thought of the eternal return: human history repeats itself over and over again. The ideas of the superman and the eternal return become the cornerstones of his work Thus spoke zarathustra, which appears in 1883.



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During his lifetime Nietzsche was a nobody. His books sold poorly, and his colleagues ignored him. Today he's a star. Politicians refer to him, Hollywood authors quote him. He wouldn't have liked to see any of this, but he would hardly have been surprised. His powerful language attracts everyone who wants to make an impression. But those who get deeper into their thoughts can help them to better understand our time of populism and moral individualism.

Nietzsche was interested in lies, in the ugly, in envy. He was the first philosopher to face the "death of God": the loss of a single religious belief that holds our society together. He knew that for many people this loss would collapse the world, their understanding of meaning and morality. How should we live when God no longer tells us to?

He viewed human history as an eternal struggle between rulers and ruled for the right values. In its Genealogy of Morals (1887) he developed a theory about how the concepts of good and bad came about. In ancient times, he believed, they had a simple meaning, namely in the sense of the rich and powerful. What was good for them was considered good, and what was harmful was considered bad. The good was synonymous with the values ​​of the aristocrats: victories, knowledge, fame, sexual permissiveness. But the oppressed protested, the "slaves" or the "herd" as Nietzsche called them. They lacked the means to shake off rule, so they tried a trick: blaming the mighty. They made them feel guilty. According to Nietzsche, the most important weapon in this struggle is Christian teaching. It is the vengeance of the oppressed, a devil's instrument to make those in power feel guilty.

Christianity turned values ​​upside down. Suddenly everything that the rulers embody is bad and everything about the herd's existence is good. Poverty is noble. Uneducation is integrity. Too little sex is chastity. To be too weak to take revenge is forgiveness. The kingdom of God belongs to the losers!

But a society that denies ubiquitous envy is sick. "Resentment" is what Nietzsche called the feeling of humiliation that a person feels when he desires something but cannot have it. "The person of resentment is neither sincere, nor naive, nor honest and downright with himself," he wrote, "his soul squints; his spirit loves hiding places, secret paths and back doors, everything that is hidden suggests him to be his world, his security, his refreshment; he understands silence, not forgetting, waiting, provisional shrinking, humbling himself. " Envy himself was probably no stranger to Nietzsche. He had little money, sex, and recognition. But he didn't want to gloss over it. He admitted that he would rather be more beautiful, stronger and more powerful. He would have despised a society full of egoists who show compassion and solidarity.