Where can I find camelgrass vetiver

Selected texts from the Carakasaṃhitā

translated and explained by Alois Payer

mailto: [email protected]

Citation / cite as:

Carakasaṃhitā: Selected texts from the Carakasaṃhitā / translated and explained by Alois Payer <1944 ->. - 1. Sūtrasthāna. - 5. Chapter 5: "Eating in moderation". - Sūtra 20c - 56b. - Version from 2007-06-19. - URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/caraka0105020.htm

First published: 2004-04-20

Revisions: 2007-06-19 [improvements];  2007-06-14 [improvements]; 2007-05-29 [improvements]; 2007-05-22 [additions]; 2007-05-11 [additions]; 2007-05-10 [additions]; 2007-05-07 [additions]; 2007-05-06 [additions]

occasion: Course SS 2007

© opyright: This text is available to the general public. Use in publications that goes beyond the usual quotations requires the express permission of the author

This text is part of the Sanskrit section of Tüpfli's Global Village Library

WARNING: this is an attempt to translate and interpret an ancient Indian text. It is not a medical guide. We therefore expressly warn against using any of the remedies mentioned here. Only an experienced, well-trained Ayurvedic doctor can give prescriptions and treatments!

If you cannot see the diacritical marks, install a font with diacritics such as Tahoma.

Works used and cited see: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/caraka0001.htm

The Verses Unless otherwise noted, they are written in Śloka.

Definition of Śloka in a Śloka:

śloke ṣaṣṭhaṃ guru jñeyaṃ
sarvatra laghu pañcamam
dvicatuṣpādayor hrasvaṃ
saptamaṃ dīrgham anyayoḥ

"In Śloka the sixth syllable of a pāda is difficult, the fifth in all pādas is easy
The seventh syllable is short in the second and fourth pāda, long in the other two. "

So the metric scheme is:

̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉˉ ̽
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉ˘ ̽
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉˉ ̽
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉ˘ ̽

For the metric see:

Payer, Alois <1944 ->: Introduction to the exegesis of Sanskrit texts: script. - chap. 8: The actual exegesis, part II: On individual questions of synchronous understanding. - Appendix B: On the metrics of Sanskrit texts. - URL: http://www.payer.de/exegese/exeg08b.htm


Bhāvamiśra <16. Century>: Bhāvaprakāśa of Bhāvamiśra: (text, English translation, notes, appendences and index) / translated by K. R. (Kalale Rangaswamaiah) Srikantha Murthy. - Chowkhamba Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy, 1998 - 2000. - (Krishnadas ayurveda series; 45). - 2 vols. - Contains in vol. 1 the VERY useful lexicon (nigaṇṭhu) Bhāvamiśras.


Kirtikar, K. R.; Basu, B. D .: Indian medical plants with illustrations. Ed., Revised, enlarged and mostly rewritten by E. Blatter, J. F. Caius and K. S. Mhaskar. - 2nd ed. - Dehra Dun: Oriental Enterprises. - 2003. - 11 vols: 3846 pp.: Ill.; 26 cm. - Reprint of the 1933 edition, the images are from the 1918 edition


Indian herbal remedies : rational Western therapy, ayurvedic and other traditional usage, botany /C. P. [Chandrama P.] Khare (ed.) [<1932 - >]. - 1st ed. -- Berlin [et al.]: Springer, 2004. - 523 pp.: Ill.; 28 cm. - 3-540-01026-2.


Pandey, Gyanendra: Dravyaguṇa vijñāna: materia medica-vegetable drugs: English-Sanskrit. - 3rd ed. - Varanasi: Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, 2005. - 3 vols .; 23 cm. - ISBN: 81-218-0088-9 (set)


Rattle, Christian: Incense, the breath of the dragon: 72 portraits of plants; Ethnobotany, rituals and practical applications. - Completely. through New edition -- Aarau, Switzerland: AT-Verl., 2006. - 237 p.: Ill.; 27 cm. - ISBN 978-3-03-800302-1. - {If you click HERE you can download this book at amazon.de to order}.

Sharma Dash

Agniveśa's Caraka saṃhitā : text with English translation & critical exposition based on Cakrapāṇi Datta's Āyurveda Dīpikā / by Ram Karan Sharma and Vaidya Bhagwan Dash. - Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office. - (Chowkhamba Sanskrit Studies; 94)


The wealth of India : a dictionary of Indian raw materials & industrial products / Publications & Information Directorate, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. - New Delhi

van Wyk-Wink-Wink

Wyk, Ben-Erik van <1956 ->; Wink, Coralie; Wink, Michael <1951 ->: Handbook of Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Guide. - 2nd edition, corrected reprint. -- Stuttgart: Wiss. Verl.-Ges., 2004. -- 480 p.: Ill.; 25 cm. - Original title: Medical plants of the world (2004). - ISBN 3-8047-2069-2.

Wherever possible, plants are named after:

Zander, Robert <1892 - 1969> [founder]: Short dictionary of plant names = Dictionary of plant names = Dictionaire des noms de plantes / Zander. Walter Erhardt ... - 17th edition - Stuttgart: Ulmer, © 2002. - 990 pages; 19 cm. - ISBN 3-8001-3573-6. - {If you click HERE you can download this book at amazon.de to order}

In addition to "Zander", the following was used:

Mabberley, David J. <1948 ->: The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants; utilizing Kubitzki's The families and genera of vascular plants (1990-), Cronquist's An integrated system of classification of flowering plants (1981) and current botanical literature arranged largely on the principles of editions 1 - 6 (1896/97 - 1931) of Willis's A diczionary of the flowering plants and ferns / DJ Mabberley. - 2nd ed., Compl. rev .. - Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997. XVI, 858 pp; 24 cm. - ISBN 0-521-41421-0. - {If you click HERE you can download this book at amazon.de to order}.

dhūmapāna - smoking

hareṇukāṃ priyaṅguṃ ca
pṛthvīkāṃ keśaraṃ nakham | 20cd |
hrīveraṃ candanaṃ patraṃ
tvag elōśīrapadmakam |
dhyāmakaṃ madhukaṃ māṃsī
guggulvaguruśarkaram | 21 |
plakṣalodhratvacaḥ śubhāḥ |
banyaṃ sarjarasaṃ mustaṃ
śaileyaṃ kamalotpale | 22 |
śrīveṣṭakaṃ śallakī approx
śukabarham athāpi ca |
piṣṭvā limpec chareṣīkāṃ
tāṃ vartiṃ yavasannabhām | 23 |
aṅguṣṭhasaṃmitāṃ kuryād
aṣṭāṅgulasamāṃ bhiṣak |
śuṣkāṃ nigarbhāṃ tāṃ vartiṃ
dhūmanetrārpitāṃ naraḥ | 24 |
snehāktām agnisaṃpluṣṭāṃ
pibet prāyogikīṃ sukhām | 25ab |

  • hareṇukā - Pisum sativum L. - pea1
  • priyaṅgu - Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. - a kind of beautiful fruit (love pearl bush) (Callicarpa)2
  • pṛthvīkā - Nigella sativa L. - Real black cumin3
  • keśara - Mesua ferrea L. - Gaugauholz4
  • nakha - nails5
  • hrīvera - Pavonia odorata Willd.6
  • candana - Santalum album L. - White sandalwood7
  • patra - Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees he Eberm. - Indian bay leaf8
  • tvak - Cinnamomum zeylanicum Flower - Ceylon Cinnamon Tree9
  • elā - Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton - Malabar cardamom10
  • uśīra - Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash - vetiver grass11
  • padmaka - Prunus cerasoides D. Don. - Wild Himalayan Cherry12
  • dhyāmaka - Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Explosive. - camel grass13
  • madhuka - Glycyrrhiza glabra L. - Liquorice (Spanish liquorice)14
  • māṃsī - Nardostachys grandiflora DC. - Nard ear (spoke ear)15
  • guggulu - Commifora wightii Arn. - Mukul myrrh16
  • aguru - Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. - Agarwood tree17
  • śarkarā - sugar18
  • pure bark of:
    • nyagrodha - Ficus benghalensis L. - Banyan fig19
    • udumbara - Ficus racemosa L. - Cluster Fig (Country Fig)20
    • aśvattha - Ficus religiosa L. - Bobaum (Indian pepul tree)21
    • plakṣa - Ficus infectoria Roxb. -22
    • lodhra - Symplocos racemosa Roxb. -23
  • banya - Cyperus tenuiflorus Rottb. - A type of sedge (Cyperus)24
  • Resin of sarja - Vateria indica L. -25
  • musta - Cyperus rotundus L. - Tuberous sedge26
  • śaileya - Parmelia perlata Oh. - a lichen27
  • kamala - Nelumbo nucifera Garden. - Indian lotus flower28
  • utpala - Nymphaea alba L. - White water lily29
  • śrīveṣṭaka - resinous extract from Pinus roxburghii Coffin. - Emodi pine30
  • śallakī - Boswellia serrata Roxb.31
  • śukabarha - ???32

The doctor crush (piṣ) them, moisten them and smear them (limp) around a cane (śareṣikā) and make them into an elongated roll (varti), similar to a stye, a thumb (aṅguṣṭha) wide, eight fingers (aṅgula) long. You dry this roll and then pull the stalk out of it. The man should put this role in a piece of smoke (dhūmanetra), grease it, scorch it with fire and use it as a joyful healing application / prāyogikī33 smoke.


The identification of the plants follows Sharma-Dash.In some cases the identification is uncertain. We therefore expressly warn against trying it out. Even with reliably identified substances, undesirable and harmful side effects are to be expected!

1 hareṇukā - Pisum sativum L. - pea

Fig .: Pisum sativum L. - pea
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Pisum sativum L.
  • Fabaceae - legumes
  • "The pea is an annual herbaceous plant. The roots reach up to a meter deep. The root nodules are located on the lateral roots. The pea only works with the nodule bacteria species Rhizobium leguminosarum Symbioses one. The stems are prostrate or climbing. They become half a meter to two meters long. They are simple or branched at the base, hollow, angular and bare. The color is bluish green. The leaves have one to three pairs of leaflets and branched leaf tendrils. The leaflets are ovate to broadly elliptical, rounded, with entire margins (or toothed at a distance). They are two to seven inches long and one and a half to four inches wide. The stipules are large (four to ten centimeters) and wide half-heart-shaped. At the lower edge, the stipules are toothed or bulged away. They usually have a purple point at the bottom. "(Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • hareṇukā: Caraka I, 5.20 (dhūmapāna)
    • hareṇu: Caraka I, 5.65 (aṇutaila)
  • German pea
  • engl. Pea
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pisum_sativum. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/pisum_sativum.htm

2 priyaṅgu - Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. - a kind of beautiful fruit (love pearl bush) (Callicarpa)

Fig .: Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.
  • Verbenaceae - Verbena family
  • shrub
  • Grows in the Himalayan foothills
  • Sanskrit:
    • priyaṅgu: Caraka I, 5.20 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa:
    • priyaṅgu
    • phalinī
    • kāntā
    • latā
    • mahilāhvayā
    • gundrā
    • gandhaphalā
    • śyāmā
    • viśvaksenā
    • aṅganāpriyā
  • German (Callicarpa = Beautiful fruit, love pearl bush)
  • engl. Beautyberry
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 222
  • Pandey: III, p. 162ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 9, p. 2646
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/callicarpa_macrophylla.htm

3 pṛthvīkā - Nigella sativa L. - Real black cumin

Fig .: Nigella sativaL. - Real black cumin
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Nigella sativa L.
  • Ranunculaceae - buttercup family
  • "Annual herbaceous plant. It is about 40 cm high, has serrated, pinnate leaves and light blue flowers." (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit:
    • pṛthvīkā: Caraka I, 5.20 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa:
    • kālājājī
    • suṣavī
    • kālikā
    • upakālikā
    • pṛthvīkā
    • kāravī
    • pṛthvī
    • pṛthukṛṣṇā
    • upakuñcikā
    • upakuñcī
    • kuñcī
    • bṛhajjīraka
  • German real black cumin
  • engl. Black Cumin, Roman Coriander
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 171
  • Pandey: III, pp. 720ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigella_sativa. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/nigella_sativa.htm

4 keśara - Mesua ferrea L. - Gaugauholz

Fig .: Mesua ferrea L.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Mesua ferrea L.
  • Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)
  • "a small to medium-sized evergreen tree up to 13 m tall, often buttressed at the base with a trunk up to 90 cm in diameter. It has simple, narrow, oblong, dark green leaves 7-15 cm long, with a whitish underside; the emerging young leaves are red to yellowish pink and drooping. The flowers are 4-7.5 cm diameter, with four white petals and a center of numerous yellow stamens. " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • keśara: Caraka I, 5.20 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa:
    • nāgakeśara
    • nāgapuṣpa
    • nāga
    • keśara
    • cāmpeya
    • nāgakiñjalka
    • kāñcanāhvayā
  • German Gaugauholt
  • engl. Gau-gau, Ironwood, Ceylon Ironwood, Indian Rose Chestnut
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 217
  • Pandey: II, 659ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 2, pp. 375ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesua_ferrea. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/mesua_ferrea.htm

5 nakha - nails: you would expect a plant, but one with this name is not identifiable, so it might just be "fingernails / toenails, claws"

6 hrīvera - Pavonia odorata Willd.

Fig .: Pavonia odorata Willd.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Pavonia odorata Willd.
  • Malvaceae - Mallow family
  • annual, 45 to 90 cm high
  • Sanskrit
    • hrīvera: Caraka I, 5.21 (dhūmapāna); Caraka I, 5.64
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • vāla
    • hrībera
    • barhiṣṭha
    • udīcya
    • keśa
    • ambunāma
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 219
  • Pandey: I, 330ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: d. 2, p. 444ff.
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/pavonia_odorata.htm

7 candana - Santalum album L. - White sandalwood

Fig .: Santalum album L. - White sandalwood
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Santalum album L. = Sandalum album = Santalum myrtifolium = Sirium myrtifolium
  • Santalaceae - sandalwood family
  • small to medium-sized evergreen tree
  • Sanskrit:
    • candana: Caraka I, 5.21 (dhūmapāna); Caraka I, 5.63 (aṇutaila)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa:
    • candana
    • śrīkhaṇḍa
    • bhadraśrī
    • tailaparṇika
    • gandhasāra
    • malayaja
    • candradyuti
  • German white sandalwood
  • engl. Sandalwood, White Sandalwood
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 207
  • Pandey: I, 469ff.
  • Rätsch: p. 146f.
  • Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santalum_album. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/santalum_album.htm

8 patra - Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees et Eberm. - Indian bay leaf

Fig .: Cinnamomum tamala(Buch.-Ham.) Nees et Eberm. - Indian bay leaf
(Courtesy EcoPort (http://www.ecoport.org) : Pankaj Oudhia)

9 tvak - Cinnamomum zeylanicum Flower - Ceylon Cinnamon Tree

Fig .: Ceylon cinnamon
[Image source: Wikipedia]

Fig .: Cinnamomum zeylanicumFlower - Ceylon Cinnamon Tree

  • Cinnamomum zeylanicum Flower = Cinnamomum verum Presl = Cinnamomum ceylanicum = Laurus cassia = Laurus cinamifera = Laurus cinnamomea
  • Lauraceae - laurel family
  • "It is an evergreen tropical deciduous tree. The bark smells aromatic. Like many tropical trees, many leaves are formed at the same time during the course of the year without a fixed point in time, then none for a while less red in color, which protects something from being eaten. In this species too, the large, simple egg-shaped leaves are bright red when young, but later dark green with white veins. The hermaphrodite flowers consist of (six to) nine bracts, nine stamens and one Ovary. Bluish, almost black drupes are formed. " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit:
    • tvak: Caraka I, 5.21 (dhūmapāna); Caraka I, 5,64 (aṇutaila)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa:
    • tvak
    • svādhvī tvak
    • tanutvak
    • dārusītā
  • German Ceylon cinnamon tree, real cinnamon tree, Kaneel tree
  • engl. Ceylon Cinnamon
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 216
  • Pandey: III, pp. 704ff.
  • Rätsch: p. 187ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamomum_zeylanicum. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/cinnamomum_zeylanicum.htm

10 elā - Elettaria cardamomum(L.) Maton - Malabar cardamom

Fig .: Elettaria cardamomum(L.) Maton - Malabar cardamom
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton = Alpinia cardamomum = Amomum cardamomum = Amomum racemosum = Amomum repens
  • Zingiberaceae - ginger family
  • "Cardamom is a perennial herbaceous plant with a strongly rooted rhizome. The individual stalks with many lanceolate leaves are usually 2 to 3 meters high, and occasionally up to 5.5 meters. The flower stalk grows out of a side shoot that creeps flat above the ground grows up to 1.5 meters high. The flowers are arranged in a panicle and have pale bluish leaves with a yellow edge. The fruits are three-part, straw-like capsules of greenish-yellowish color. In each compartment there are four to eight irregularly shaped, gray to Reddish brown seeds. Cardamom is a type of spice. In Arab countries cardamom is said to have an aphrodisiac effect. " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit:
    • elā: Caraka I, 5:21 (dhūmapāna)
    • sūkṣmailā: Caraka I, 5.64 (aṇutaila); Caraka I, 5.77 (āsyena dhāryāṇi)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • sukṣmā
    • elā
    • upakuñcikā
    • tutthā
    • koraṅgī
    • drāviḍī
    • truṭi
  • German Malabar cardamom
  • engl. Chester Cardamom
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 216
  • Pandey: I, 630ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elettaria_cardamomum. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/elettaria_cardamomum.htm

11 uśīra - Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash - vetiver grass

Fig .: Vetiveria zizanoides(L.) Nash - vetiver grass
[Image source: Wikipedia]

Fig .: Vetiver bundle on a market
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash = Andropogon muricatusRetz. = Andropogon squarrosus Hack. = Cymbopogon jawarancusa
  • Poaceae - sweet grass
  • "The grass clusters have a diameter of about 30 cm, the height of the plant is 50 to 150 cm. Because of its dense network of roots, vetiver is planted wherever there is a threat of soil erosion. The roots also keep the soil moist and can use it to a certain extent That is why vetiver is planted in Southeast Asia on the one hand to improve the soil, on the other hand as a field border. The essential oils of the vetiver are used in perfume production, aromatherapy and naturopathy. The vetiver root is also used as incense. " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit:
    • uśīra: Caraka I, 5:21 (dhūmapāna)
    • abhaya: Caraka I, 5,64 (aṇutaila)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • vīraṇa
    • vīrataru
    • vīra
    • bahumūlaka
    • uśīra = vīraṇamūla (root of it)
  • German vetiver grass
  • engl. Cus Cus, vetiver
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 219
  • Pandey: III, 740ff.
  • Rätsch: p. 174f.
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vetiver. - Accessed on 2006-04-16
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vetiver. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/vetiveria_zizanoides.htm

12 padmaka - Prunus cerasoides D. Don. - Wild Himalayan Cherry

Fig .: Prunus cerasoidesD. Don. - Wild Himalayan Cherry
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Prunus cerasoides D. Don.
  • Rosaceae - rose family
  • "a medium sized tree which grows up to 30 meters in height. It flowers in autumn and winter, specifically in January and February. Flowers are hermaphroditic and are pinkish white in color. It has smooth bark, ovoid yellow fruit that turns red as it ripens. When the tree is not in flower, it is characterized by glossy, ringed bark and long, dentate stipules. " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit:
    • padmaka: Caraka I, 5:21 (dhūmapāna)
  • engl. Wild Himalayan Cherry
  • Pandey: III, 1ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus_cerasoides. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/prunus_cerasoides.htm

13 dhyāmaka - Cymbopogon schoenanthus(L.) Explosive. - camel grass

Fig .: Cymbopogon schoenanthus(L.) Explosive.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Explosive. = Cymbopogon citratus = Andropogon ceriferus = Andropogon citratus = Andropogon citriodorum = Andropogon roxburghii = Andropogon schoenanthus L. = Andropogon laniger Desf.
  • Poaceae - sweet grass
  • Sanskrit:
    • dhyāmaka: Caraka I, 5:21 (dhūmapāna)
  • German camel grass, lemon grass
  • engl. Geranium grass
  • Pandey: III, p. 248ff.
  • Rätsch: p. 92
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 11, pp. 3676ff.
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/cymbopogon_schoenanthus.htm

14 madhuka - Glycyrrhiza glabra L. - Liquorice (Spanish liquorice)

Fig .: Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
[Image source: Wikipedia]

Fig .: Licorice
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Glycyrrhiza glabra L. = Glycyrrhiza glandulifera = Glycyrrhiza hirsuta = Glycyrrhiza officinalis = Glycyrrhiza pallida = Glycyrrhiza violacea = Liquiritia officinalis = Liquiritia officinarum
  • glycyrrhiza (gr.) = sweet root; glabra (Latin) = smooth, bald
  • Fabaceae - legumes
  • woody perennial, up to 2 m high and wide; woody rhizome, dark, pinnate leaves, light purple to white flowers "It is sensitive to frost and prefers full sun and deep, humus-rich, permeable soil. In late summer, bluish-purple and white butterfly flowers appear in short, upright spikes. Licorice is a perennial herbaceous plant , which can grow to heights of up to 100 centimeters. The roots are harvested in autumn. The liquorice candy is made from them. " (Wikipedia)
  • imported into India from Central Asia and Asia Minor
  • Sanskrit
    • klītaka: Caraka I, 1.81 (phalinī)
    • madhuka: Caraka I, 5.21 (dhūmapāna), Caraka I, 5.63 (aṇutaila)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa:
    • yaṣṭīmadhu
    • yaṣīmadhuka
    • klītaka
    • klītanaka
    • another variety: madhūlika
  • German liquorice bush, liquorice, Spanish liquorice
  • engl. Liquorice / Licorice
  • Ingredients: Aponine, Glycyrrhizin; Mannitol, glucose, sucrose; Flavone glycosides; Coumarin derivatives; L-asparagine, resin, gum, 20-30% starch, bitter substances
  • Pharmacology: experiments have shown that glycyrrhizinic and glycyrrhetinic acids bind weakly to corticoreceptors, which could explain the anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Stem plant of: Liquiritiae radix: licorice root, licorice root, licorice; Succus Liquiritiae: liquorice juice, liquorice juice, bear juice
  • Effect: secretolytic expectorant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, antiviral, spasmolytic
  • Applications: respiratory catarrh, gastric ulcer; Correcting taste; technically for the production of Succus Liquiritiae
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 181
  • Pandey: II, pp. 456ff.
  • Khare, p. 233ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 3, pp. 1021ff.
  • Wealth: Vol. 4, pp. 151fff; First suppl. ser., Vol. 3, pp. 195ff.
  • van Wyk-Wik-Wink: p. 160
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycyrrhiza_glabra. - Accessed on 2007-02-16
  • Hunnius: s.v.
  • In detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/glycyrrhiza_glabra.htm

15 māṃsī - Nardostachys grandifloraDC. - Nard ear (spoke ear)

Fig .: Nardostachys grandifloraDC. - Nard ear (spoke ear)
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Nardostachys grandiflora DC. = Nardostachys jatamansi(D. Don) DC. = Nardostachys chinensis = Nardostachys gracilis = Patrinia jatamansi = Valeriana jatamansi
  • Valerianaceae - Valerian Family
  • "The plant grows to about 1 m in height and has pink, bell-shaped flowers. Spikenard rhizomes (underground stems) can be crushed and distilled into an intensely aromatic amber-colored essential oil, which is very thick in consistency. Nard oil is used as a perfume, an incense, a sedative, and an herbal medicine said to fight insomnia, birth difficulties, and other minor ailments. " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • māṃsī: Caraka I, 5:21 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa:
    • jaṭāmāṃsī
    • bhūtajaṭā
    • jaṭilā
    • tapasvinī
  • German nard ear, spoke ear, Indian nard
  • engl. Nard, Spikenard
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 220
  • Pandey: I, 835ff.
  • Rätsch: p. 192
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indische_Narde. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spikenard. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/nardostachys_grandiflora.htm

16 guggulu - Commifora wightii Arn. - Mukul myrrh

Fig .: Commifora wightii Arn.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Commifora wightii Arn. = Commiphora mukul Engl. = Commiphora roxburghii = Balsamodendron mukul = Balsamodendron roxburghii
  • Burseraceae - balsam tree family
  • "It is a shrub or small tree, reaching a maximum height of 4 m, with thin papery bark. The branches are thorny. The leaves are simple or trifoliate, the leaflets ovate, 1-5 cm long, 0.5-2.5 cm broad, irregularly toothed. It is gynodioecious, with some plants bearing bisexual and male flowers, and others with female flowers. The individual flowers are red to pink, with four small petals. " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • guggulu: Caraka I, 5:21 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • guggulu
    • devadhūpa
    • jaṭāyu
    • kauśika
    • pura
    • kumbha
    • ulūkhalaka
    • mahiṣākṣa
    • palaṅkaṣa
  • German mukul myrrh
  • engl. Guggul, Mukul Myrrh Tree
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 211
  • Pandey: I, 710ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 3, pp. 728ff.
  • Rätsch: p. 80f.
  • Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guggul. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
    http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guggul. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/commifora_wightii.htm

17 aguru - Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. - Agarwood tree

Fig .: Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. = Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. = Aquilaria secundaria DC. = Aquilaria malaccense Thiegh. = Agalochum malaccense (Lam.) Kuntze = Aloexylon agallochum
  • Thymelaeaceae - Daphne family
  • "The agarwood tree is a large, evergreen deciduous tree that can reach heights of up to 40 m and a trunk diameter of 1.5 to 2.5 m. The alternate, simple leaves are 5 to 11 cm long and 2 to 4 cm wide and one smooth The yellowish-green flowers stand together in golden inflorescences. The first flowers and fruits are formed between the ages of seven and nine years. Woody, 2.5 to 3 cm long capsule fruits are formed. This species grows in mixed forests at altitudes between 0 and 1000 m above sea level " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • aguru: Caraka I, 5.21 (dhūmapāna); Caraka I, 5.63 (aṇutaila)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa:
    • aguru
    • pravara
    • loha
    • rājārha
    • yogaja
    • vaṃśika
    • kṛmija
    • kṛmijagdha
    • anāryaka
  • German agarwood tree, agar tree
  • engl. Agarwood
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 209
  • Rätsch: p. 33ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquilaria_agallocha. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agarwood. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/aquilaria_malaccensis.htm

18 śarkarā - sugar

See: Bhāvaprakāśa: I, 490ff. (īkṣuvarga)

in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/saccharum_officinarum.htm

19 pure bark of nyagrodha - Ficus benghalensis L. - Banyan fig

Fig .: Ficus benghalensis L. - Banyan fig
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Ficus benghalensis L.
  • Moraceae - Mulberry Family
  • "The banyan grows epiphytically on any host tree, which initially does not suffer any damage, since the banyan is not a parasite. It sends out aerial roots that develop into a dense network over time. Once the roots have reached the ground, one comes into being Growth spurt, as the plant no longer depends exclusively on the substrate that has accumulated on the host tree. As it grows, the host tree is crushed and eventually dies. Banyan trees can reach enormous dimensions. They can reach heights of over 30 meters The increasing number of aerial roots develops into several trunks, some of which are considerable in size. In this way, the banyan tree can cover an area of ​​several hundred square meters over time. " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • nyagrodha: Caraka I, 5:22 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • vaṭa
    • raktaphala
    • śṛṅgī
    • nyagrodha
    • skandhaja
    • dhruva
    • kṣīrī
    • vaiśravaṇa
    • vāsa
    • bahupāda
    • vanaspati
  • German banyan fig, banyan tree, Bengali fig
  • engl. banyan
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 293
  • Pandey: III, 813ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 10, pp. 3191ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficus_benghalensis. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banyan. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/ficus_benghalensis.htm

20 pure bark of udumbara - Ficus racemosa L. - Cluster Fig (Country Fig)

Fig .: Ficus racemosa L.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Ficus racemosa L. = Ficus glomerata Roxb.
  • Moraceae - Mulberry Family
  • Sanskrit
    • udumbara: Caraka I, 5:22 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • udumbara
    • jantuphala
    • yajñāṅga
    • hemadugdhaka
  • engl. Cluster Fig, Country Fig
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 294
  • Pandey: III, 713ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basus: Vol. 10, p. 3216ff.
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/ficus_racemosa.htm

21 pure bark of aśvattha - Ficus religiosaL. - Bobaum (Indian pepul tree)

Fig .: Ficus religiosaL. - Bobaum: Anandabodhi tree in Jetavana Monastery, Sravasti, Uttar Pradesh, India
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Ficus religiosa L. = Urostigma religiosum Gasp.
  • Moraceae - Mulberry Family
  • "It is a large dry season-deciduous or semi-evergreen tree up to 30 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 3 m. The leaves are cordate in shape with a distinctive extended tip; they are 10-17 cm long and 8-12 cm broad, with a 6-10 cm petiole. The fruit is a small fig 1-1.5 cm diameter, green ripening purple. " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • aśvattha: Caraka I, 5:22 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa:
    • bodhidru
    • pippala
    • aśvattha
    • calapatra
    • gajāśana
  • German bob tree, Indian pepul tree, poplar fig, buddha tree, bodhi tree
  • engl. Sacred Fig, Bo, Pipal (Peepul), Ashwattha
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 293
  • Pandey: I, 255ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: vol. 110, p. 3200ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pappel-Feige. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacred_fig. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/ficus_religiosa.htm

22 pure bark of plakṣa - Ficus infectoria Roxb.

Fig .: Ficus infectoria Roxb.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Ficus infectoria Roxb. = Ficus lacor Buch.-Ham. = Ficus lucescens flower
  • Moraceae - Mulberry Family
  • Deciduous tree, up to 20 m high
  • Sanskrit
    • plakṣa: Caraka I, 5:22 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • plakṣa
    • jaṭī
    • parkarī
    • parkaṭī
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 295
  • Pandey: III, 142ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 10, pp. 3202ff.
  • Wealth: IV, 36f.
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/ficus_infectoria.htm

23 pure bark of lodhra - Symplocos racemosaRoxb.

Fig .: Symplocos racemosa Roxb.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Symplocos racemosa Roxb. = Symplocosthecefolia Don.
  • symplocos (gr.) = intertwined; racemosa (Latin) = grape-like
  • Symplocaceae
  • Sanskrit
    • tilvaka: Caraka I, 1,116 (tvac)
    • lodhra: Caraka I, 5:22 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • lodhra
    • tilva
    • tirīṭa
    • śāvara
    • gālava
  • German (Symplocos = Rake flower, sapphire berry)
  • engl. Sweetleaf, Sapphire Berry, Californian Cinchona, China Nora, Lodh Tree
  • Tree, up to 6 m high and 15 cm trunk diameter
  • grows in the plains and hills of north and east India, in the Himalayas up to 1400 m above sea level.
  • Ingredients: loturin and other alkaloids
  • Applications: uterine problems, kunjuivitis and other eye disorders, febrile diarrhea, antidiabetic
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 194
  • Pandey: II, 415ff.
  • Khare: p. 439f.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 7, pp. 2089ff.
  • In detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/symplocos_racemosa.htm

24 banya - Cyperus tenuiflorus Rottb. - A type of sedge (Cyperus)

Fig .: Cyperus tenuiflorus Rottb.
[Image Source: © 1995-2005 Missouri Botanical Garden. - http://www.illustratedgarden.org. - Accessed on 2007-05-06]

25 Resin of sarja - Vateria indicaL.

Fig .: Vateria indica L.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Vateria indica L.
  • Dipterocarpaceae - wing fruit family
  • evergreen tree, up to 30 m high
  • Sanskrit
    • sarja: Caraka I, 5:22 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa:
    • sarjaka
    • śāla
    • maricpatraka
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 296
  • Pandey: III, 405ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 2, pp. 400ff.
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/vateria_indica.htm

26 musta - Cyperus rotundus L. - Tuberous sedge

Fig .: Cyperus rotundusL. - Tuberous sedge
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Cyperus rotundus L. = Cyperus comosus
  • Cyperaceae - sour grass family
  • "It is a perennial plant, that may reach a height of up to 40 cm. The names" nut grass "and" nut sedge "(shared with the related species Cyperus esculentus) are derived from its tubers, that somewhat resemble nuts, although botanically they have nothing to do with nuts. As in other Cyperaceae, the leaves sprout in ranks of three from the base of the plant. The flower stems have a triangular cross-section. The flower is bisexual and has three stamina and a three-stigma carpel. The fruit is a three-angled achene. The root system of a young plant initially forms white, fleshy rhizomes. Some rhizomes grow upward in the soil, then form a bulb-like structure from which new shoots and roots grow, and from the new roots, new rhizomes grow. Other rhizomes grow horizontally or downward, and form dark reddish-brown tubers or chains of tubers. "(Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • musta: Caraka I, 5:22 (dhūmapāna); Caraka I, 5,64 (aṇutaila)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • mustaka
    • musta / mustā
    • vāridanāmaka
    • kuruvinda
  • German tuberous Zypergras
  • engl. Nutgrass
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 220
  • Pandey: II, 636ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyperus_rotundus. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/cyperus_rotundus.htm

27 śaileya - Parmelia perlata Oh. - a lichen: so right, instead of Sharma-Dash's Permellia perforata

Fig .: Parmelia perlata Oh.
[Image source: http://www.homepages.hetnet.nl/~matthieuvw/wisselpagina.htm. - Accessed on 2007-10-11. - "copyright-free"]

  • Parmelia perlata Oh.
  • Parmeliaceae
  • lichen
  • Sanskrit:
    • śaileya: Caraka I, 5:22 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • śaileya
    • śilāpuṣpa
    • vṛddha
    • kālānusāryaka
  • engl. Stone flowers
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 220
  • Pandey: III, pp. 273ff.
  • Kirtikar_Basu: Vol. 11, p. 3775
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/parmelia_perlata.htm

28 kamala - Nelumbo nucifera Garden. - Indian lotus flower

Fig .: Nelumbo nucifera Garden. - Indian lotus flower
[Image source: WIkipedia]

  • Nelumbo nucifera Garden.
  • Nelumbonaceae - lotus family
  • "The roots of Nelumbo nucifera are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on top of the water surface. The flowers are usually found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the water. The plant normally grows up to a height of about 150 cm and a horizontal spread of up to 3 meters, but some unverified reports place the height as high as over 5 meters. The leaves may be as large as 60 cm in diameter, while the showy flowers can be up to 20 cm in diameter. "(Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • kamala: Caraka I, 5:22 (dhūmapāna)
    • padmakeśara: Caraka I, 5.65 (aṇutaila)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • padma
    • nalina
    • aravinda
    • mahotpala
    • sahasrapatra
    • kamala
    • śatapatra
    • kuśeśaya
    • paṅkeruha
    • tāmarasa
    • sārasa
    • sarasīruha
    • bisaprasūna
    • rājīva
    • puṣkara
    • ambhoruha
  • German Indian lotus flower
  • engl. Lotus, Sacred Indian Lotus
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, 280
  • Pandey: II, 45ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_%28Botanik%29. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelumbo_nucifera. - Accessed on 2007-05-07
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/nelumbo_nucifera.htm

29 utpala - Nymphaea alba L. - White water lily

Fig .: Nymphaea alba L. - White water lily
[Image source: Wikipedia]

Fig .: Nymphaea alba L. - White water lily
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Nymphaea alba L. = Nymphaea officinalis
  • Nymphaeaceae - water lily family
  • "The white water lily is a perennial herbaceous plant. It has dark green leaves. The fragrant, semi-double, large, white flowers with a gold-colored center appear all summer from June to September. The flowers, which are 9 to 12 centimeters in diameter , are composed of four green sepals and numerous spirally arranged white petals. The petals merge into the equally numerous stamens. The flowers close in the evening and in rainy weather. They carry plenty of pollen with which they attract their visitors, mostly flies, reed beetles and bumblebees The fruits of the plant are hemispherical to ovate. The seeds are buoyant and are spread in the plumage of waterfowl in other bodies of water. The water lily uses the so-called zoochory as one of its spreading strategy. The leaves have a wax coating that they cover before being wetted Upper side protects. They are leathery and tough to withstand the impacting raindrops and the waves. The stomata, which are important for breathing, are - in contrast to land plants - on the upper side of the leaf. The leaves also have wide-meshed air spaces in the tissue, from where the air taken in through the stomata is directed through air channels in the stem to the root stock. In this way, the "rhizome" in the low-oxygen pond floor is provided with breathing air. The long leaf and flower stalks are very elastic and also have large air spaces. "(Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • utpala: Caraka I, 5:22 (dhūmapāna); Caraka I, 5,64 (aṇutaila)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • śveta kuvalaya
    • kumuda
    • kairava
  • German white water lily
  • engl. White Water Lily
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 282
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wei%C3%9Fe_Seerose. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/nymphaea_alba.htm

30 śrīveṣṭaka - resin from Pinus roxburghii Coffin. - Emodi pine

Fig .: Pinus roxburghii Coffin. - Emodi pine, bark
[Image source. Wikipedia]

Fig .: Pinus roxburghii Coffin. - Emodi pine, needles and cones
[Image source. Wikipedia]

  • Pinus roxburghii Coffin.
  • Pinaceae
  • "a large tree, reaching 30-50 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 2 m, exceptionally 3 m. The bark is red-brown, thick and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, thinner and flaky in the upper crown. The leaves are needle-like, in fascicles of three, very slender, 20-35 cm long, and distinctly yellowish green. The cones are ovoid conic, 12-24 cm long and 5-8 cm broad at the base when closed , green at first, ripening glossy chestnut-brown when 24 months old. They open slowly over the next year or so, or after being heated by a forest fire, to release the seeds, opening to 9-18 cm broad. The seeds are 8-9 mm long, with a 40 mm wing, and are wind-dispersed. " (Wikipedia)
  • Sanskrit
    • śrīveṣṭaka = resin from it: Caraka I, 5:23 (dhūmapāna)
  • German Emodi pine, Salla pine
  • engl. Chir Pine, Indian Longleaf Pine
  • Pandey: III, 380ff.
  • Rätsch: p. 129ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinus_roxburghii. - Accessed on 2007-04-16
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/pinus_roxburghii.htm

31 śallakī - Boswellia serrataRoxb. ex Colebr. - Indian incense

Fig .: Boswellia serrata Roxb.
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Boswellia serrata Roxb. = Boswellia glabra Roxb. ex Colebr. = Boswellia thurifera Colebr. = Boswellia glabra = Canarium balsamiferum Willd. = Libanus thuriferus
  • Burseraceae - balsam tree family
  • Sanskrit
    • śallakī: Caraka I, 5:23 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • śallakī
    • gajabhakṣyā
    • suvahā
    • surabhī
    • rasā
    • maheruṇā
    • kandurukī
    • vallakī
    • bahusravā
  • German Indian frankincense
  • engl. Indian Frankincense
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 296
  • Pandey: III, 329ff.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 3, pp. 721ff.
  • Rätsch: p. 121ff.
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/boswellia_serrata.htm

32 śukabarha - ???

33 Healing application / Prāyogikī: prāyogikī is also used as a name for the smoking stuff.

yuktiyuktair varauṣadhaiḥ | 25cd |
vartiṃ madhurakaiḥ kṛtvā
snaihikīṃ dhūmam ācaret | 26ab |

25c. - 26b. Make a greasy smoke roll / "cigar" (varti) from sweet, good herbs, to which you have expertly added (yukti) muscle fat (vasā), ghee and beeswax. Then give in to smoking.

śvetā jyotiṣmatī caiva
haritālaṃ manaḥśilā | 26cd |
gandhāś cāgurupatrādyā
dhūmaṃ mūrdhavirecane | 27ab |

26c. - 27b. To empty the head, smoke things out

  • śvetā - white variety of Clitoria ternatea L., var.alba - pubic flower1
  • jyotiṣmatī - Celastrus panniculata Willd. - Climbing Staff Tree2
  • haritāla - orpigment3
  • manaḥśilā - realgar4
  • Fragrant plants like
    • aguru - Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. - Agarwood tree5
    • patra - Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees he Eberm. - Indian bay leaf6


1 śvetā - white variety of Clitoria ternatea L., var.alba - pubic flower

Fig .: Clitoria ternatea L., blue variety
[Image source: Wikipedia]

  • Clitoria ternatea L., var.alba (white variety)
  • Fabaceae - legumes
  • Sanskrit
    • śvetā: Caraka I, 1.79, I, 5.26 (dhūmapāna)
    • śvetanāmā (i.e. having all the words for "white" as a name): Caraka I, 1.77 (mūlinī)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • āsphota
    • girikarṇī
    • viṇukrāntā
    • aparājitā
  • German blue pubic flower, blue clitoris, butterfly pea
  • closely. Butterfly Pea, Winged-leaved Clitoria, Mezereon, Conchflower, Mussel Shell-Creeper
  • Winch, 3.5 m high; Flowers clitoral-shaped, pale lavender, up to 5 cm long; Name "ternatea" after the Indonesian island of Ternate, where the species was "discovered"
  • grows all over tropical India
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 244
  • Pandey: I, 161ff.
  • Khare, pp. 153f.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 4, pp. 1120ff.
  • Wealth: First Suppl. Ser., Vol. 2, pp. 71ff.
  • Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clitoria_ternatea. - Accessed on 2007-02-15
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/clitoria_ternatea.htm

2 jyotiṣmatī (Luminous):

Fig .: Celastrus panniculata Willd
[Image source: Kirtikar-Basu, © 1918]

  • Celastrus panniculata Willd
  • Celastraceae - spindle tree family
  • Sanskrit
    • jyotiṣmatī: Caraka I, 1.78 (mūlinī), 79; I, 5.26 (dhūmapāna)
  • Bhāvaprakāśa
    • jyotiṣmatī
    • kaṭabhī
    • jyotiṣkā
    • kaṅgunī
    • pārāvatapadī
    • piṇyā
    • latā
    • kakundanī
  • German (Celastrus = Tree shrike)
  • engl. Black-oil Plant, Climbing Staff Tree, Intellect Tree
  • grows all over India in mountains up to 2000 m above sea level.
  • Bhāvaprakāśa: I, p. 186
  • Pandey: I, 888ff.
  • Khare, pp. 136f.
  • Kirtikar-Basu: Vol. 3, pp. 800ff.
  • Wealth: Vol. 3, rev. ed., pp. 412f.
  • in detail: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/ Pflanzen/celastrus_panniculata.htm

3 haritāla - orpigment

See: Bhāvaprakāśa I, pp. 350f.

"Orpiment, also under the obsolete names Auripigment or Arsenic blende, more rarely under its chemical name arsenic (III) sulfide (As4S.6) known, is an arsenic-sulfur mineral from the mineral class of non-metallic sulfides.


It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with the chemical composition As4S.6 and usually develops leafy, fibrous aggregates and crusts, more rarely small, prismatic or pseudorhombic crystals in lemon to bronze yellow color.

Special properties

In the transmitted light microscope, you can see coarse, transparent yellow particles that have a leafy structure. Numerous cleavage surfaces can be seen. The mineral is birefringent, extremely bright, abnormal red and blue-green interference colors appear under crossed polarizers.

Etymology and history

The name auripigment is out of date and has been replaced in mineralogy by the mineral name orpiment; auripigment is still used as a name for the pigment used in painting. The name is derived from Latin aurum (Gold). It was also known under the Greek Arrhenicon and derived from it Arsenicon, Arsikon, Arzikon. In German-speaking countries, terms such as Risigallum, Ruschgäl, Rüschelecht and Rusty yellow on, later too Royal yellow, arsenic blende, yellow smelter and Operment (um). In France and England it was known as orpiment, in Italy as orpimento.

Education and Locations

Orpiment is formed in addition to arsenic (As2O3) or Pararealgar (AsS) under UV light from Realgar and thus has the same locations as this one.


The structure of the crystals consists of layers of arsenic sulfide in the ratio of As2S.3 built up, a so-called layer structure. Strong, homopolar (non-polar) atomic bonds prevail within the layers and weak van der Waals bonds prevail between the layers.

Use as a pigment

The reddish-yellow aura pigment has been used to imitate gold since ancient times, because it “resembles gold like no other color,” says Cennino Cennini. There are many recipes for gold scripts in source writings such as the Leiden Papyrus X, the Lucca Manuscript or the Mappae Clavicula. The auripigment has been proven in ancient Egyptian art, wall paintings in India and China, medieval book illuminations, sculpture frames and panel paintings, in Venetian paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries as well as old Dutch painting still life from the 17th century and Tibetan thankas from the same period.

Fig .: Auripigment

Before the invention of chrome yellow, Orpiment was that brightest yellowthat one knew in painting. Today it is being replaced by non-toxic tar dyes in use.


Many sources warn of the high toxicity of the aura pigment. In 1738 Sprong described it: “Royal yellow: This is made from the best pieces of aura pigment and is therefore very poisonous. The user should therefore not try to smell it by holding his nose over it ”. Valentin Boltz also warns explicitly in his Illuminierbuch 1549: “And be careful not to lick a stick of this color, because it is scheduled”. Cennini describes it as "propio tosco", truly poisonous, and in many books (Schramm) and lists of pigment manufacturers (Kremer) it is classified in poison class 1 or 2. But there is also the statement that arsenic trisulfide is not very toxic. Since it is insoluble in water and hydrochloric acid, it cannot be absorbed by the body, or only in small quantities. Symptoms of poisoning can indicate "contamination" with the breakdown product arsenic (As2O3), which was used as a famous (suicide) murder poison.

In addition to its toxicity, there is another disadvantage of orpiment, especially in old paintings: when exposed to light (direct sunlight), the solvents used in painting react with the orpiment, so that the yellow disintegrates over the centuries. This has a particular effect on green tones, which the old masters often mixed from orpiment paints and a blue pigment in the absence of a beautiful green pigment: this is the reason that in many old landscape paintings, for example, the trees due to the fading of the yellow blue became."

[Source: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auripigment. - Accessed on 2007-03-09]

4 manaḥśilā - realgar

See: Bhāvaprakāśa I, p. 351.

"Realgar, Ruby sulfur, as a pigment also as Noise red or Opperment, is a common arsenic-sulfur mineral from the mineral class of non-metallic sulphides. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with the chemical formula As4S.4 and develops prismatic, longitudinally striped crystals or granular, massive aggregates in the colors red to orange-yellow.

Realgar from Romania

The name Realgar comes from Arabic Radj al ghar and means something like "cave powder".

Special properties

Realgar is very unstable and breaks down into orpiment (auripigment As2S.3) and arsenic (As2O3) or Pararealgar (AsS). It is partially soluble in acids and potassium hydroxide and develops toxic fumes that smell like garlic.

Fig .: Realgar disintegrating under the influence of light

Realgar bears a certain resemblance, at least in terms of color, to cinnabar (vermilion) and ruby. However, both crystallize trigonally and are either much heavier or harder than realgar.

Education and Locations

As a typical secondary mineral, realgar is found together with the related aura pigment in hydrothermal veins and springs. It arises from the decomposition of other arsenic-containing minerals such as arsenopyrite, but also from the resublimation of volcanic gases.

Important sites are the canton of Valais in Switzerland, Baia Sprie and Transylvania in Romania, Shimen / Hunan in China, Nevada in the USA and Allchar in Macedonia.


Realgar cage structure

The unit cell of the chemical compound is cage-shaped, with strong, covalent atomic bonds within the cages and weak van der Waals bonds between the cages, which explains the chemical instability. In the individual cage, the arsenic atoms (oxidation level: +3) are each connected to a further arsenic and two sulfur atoms. The sulfur atoms (oxidation level: -2) each have 2 bonds to arsenic atoms.


In the Middle Ages, realgar was mainly used in medicine and glass production, today it is used in pyrotechnics, but also in pesticide production.

Realgar was used as a pigment in ancient times because of its immiscible orange-red color. It can also be found in medieval book and panel painting.

Today, due to its extreme toxicity, it can only be used in exceptional cases and under special safety precautions. It is still available from specialist retailers for special restoration applications. In all other applications it can be replaced by modern synthetic pigments such as tar dyes (perylene red). ĀvaḥPrecautions

Realgar contains a high proportion of arsenic of approx. 70 percent by weight and is therefore classified as a poisonous substance (R-phrases R 23/25 Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed, R 50/53 Very toxic to aquatic organisms