Do older Austrians miss the Austria-Hungary monarchy

© Heinz Dieter Pohl

On Austrian German in the light of language contact research

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Last updated and edited on 2.8.2011

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Contents overview:

1. General information about the "Austrians". 2. Austrian German in the light of language contact and “variety contact”. 3. Examples of voice contact.

4. Austrian and Bavarian / Bavarian German. 5. “Austriasisms” - attempt at a classification. 6. Summary.

"We are a German language community that distances itself from the German language community"

(R. Menasse, The land without properties, Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch 2487, 11995, p. 24)


1. General information about the "Austrians"

The usual and widespread view of the connection between Austrian German and language contact can be found in countless publications, mostly in connection with romantic hypotheses about the origins of Austrians - an example, for example, Gabriele Holzer (1):

The truly multi-ethnic (and -national) history of the melting pot Austria was and is, also in Austria, sometimes overlooked and denied. Even the legendary mayor ... Karl Lueger made a calculated mistake when he asked immigrants from the non-German-speaking areas of the monarchy ... a commitment to Germanness. Especially people whose origins are particularly mixed and anything but Was "Germanic" or even just Bavarian, then often behaved as the most loyal "Germans" ...

The traces of this history of diversity, which simplicity does not want to admit, are in cross-border relationships and contacts, in cooking and living habits,in a related worldview that transcends language borders, in telephone books, government lists (the Austrian Federal President, the Federal Chancellor, the Vice Chancellor(2) and many ministers have Slavic names) and also in some language and intonations, such as the Slavic Viennese "L" alive[Emphasis added by me, H.D.P.] (3).

It is true, as Holzer thinks: They are visible to anyone who does not want to overlook them. But so It's not easy either; The melting pot theorists in particular, who are mostly unable to pronounce a surname of Slavic or Hungarian origin correctly, are particularly fond of the names and equate names and origins, from the book already quoted (4):

The call for a referendum on Austria's independence ... on March 13, 1938 ... was aimed at a German Austria. And ... [it] Kurt Schuschnigg, Austrian Chancellor of Slovene descent, spoke of the fact that no German blood should flow.

Name and language have nothing in common with blood, so terms such as “German blood”, “Slovenian blood” etc. are to be rejected (5), because the blood of all people in this world is different just according to blood groups! Therefore - to the chagrin of many "German / Slovene / etc.-minded people", but also those who like to see us Austrians as "mixed people" - ancestry myths of all kinds are to be rejected, because we have 2 parents, 4 grandparents, 8 great-grandparents, etc., 10 generations ago over a thousand, 20 generations ago over a million and 30 generations ago over a billion ancestors - there weren't that many people around the world 900 years ago (= 30 generations). This means that every hypothesis of ancestry breaks down in itself, both that of the “pure” Germanic / Slavic / etc. Descent as well as the multiethnic or multicultural “melting pot theory”. One becomes “German”, “Slovene” or “Austrian” through socialization, upbringing and education, not just through birth. Whether an Austrian who has become German-speaking or who has become Slovenian-speaking by acquiring his mother tongue feels like a “German”, “Austrian” or “Slovene” is his subjective decision, which he has to make on the basis of life experience, worldview and knowledge, whereby Double confessions are quite possible, for example being politically “Austrian”, but ethnically and linguistically “German” or “Slovene”.

As far as I know, Kurt Schuschnigg was a Tyrolean, more precisely a South Tyrolean, and many South Tyroleans, as is well known, have Italian names without being Italian (e.g. Magnago, Scrinzi), just as a politician in Vienna has a significant family name “Carinthian” without being “Carinthian” and even less “Slovenian”, namely Korosec (Slovenian Korošec [ko'ro: ʃets]), vulgo ['korosek]. Even in Vienna, which feels “multicultural”, it is difficult to read names other than German.

The Viennese Germanist Hermann Scheuringer (6) brought this problem addressed here to the point years ago:

The special state vocabulary and with it the blatantly exaggerated fact “Multicultural roots”, which - implicitly meant and basically only applicable to Vienna - distinguish Austria from Germany, are justified by many with a kind of “melting pot” theory (7) with the Viennese telephone directory as its outstanding topos, which romanticizes harder facts for Vienna and does not apply at all to the rest of Austria and especially its western half.

For this also in the context of the contemporary historical discussion about the “Being German” Austria's repeated quotation ... that most Austrians “feel more at home in Trieste, Prague or Zagreb than in Hamburg or Kiel, where German is spoken” (...), a statement which, if it could actually be applied to all of Austria and Germany, would also have to include that, for example, a Schärdinger would have to feel more comfortable in Zagreb than in Passau, an Innsbrucker would have to feel more at home in Prague than in Munich, etc. - going out of a glorification of "Kakania", symptomatic disregard for western Austria and a consciously distancing equivalence between only northern German cities and Germany. In the deliberately simplistic and blanket appropriation diction of Eastern Austrian historians in particular: Most Western Austrians feel more at home in Lindau, Munich or Passau than in Graz or Vienna, which is also Austria. Arguments of this kind are not conducive to an objective writing of contemporary history.

The people of the German language and culture are not a community of descent, but a people in the sociocultural sense. In many parts of the old (East Franconian, later "German") empire, Germanic tribes mixed with Celts, Slavs and other peoples. In what is now Austria's territory, the Baiern (in the far west also Alemanni) prevailed, which meant a cultural and linguistic "Germanization". The overemphasis on the non-Germanic and non-German parts of the settlement and population history of Austria and the myth of the unique Austrian "mixed people" - as if the other European nations are inbred products! (8) One Austrian colleague even went so far as to claim that “ethnically cleansing” Germanists and historians overlooked that Austria is actually a Slavic name and means "Spitzberg" (9). - So much for a few introductory remarks in order to highlight the ideological discussion about Austrian identity and Austrian German (10), which I do not want to continue here, but rather I want to show where language contact actually plays a role in Austrian German.

2.Austrian German in the light of language contact and "Variety contact"

In Austria as a whole, language contact plays a contradicting role, with Vienna usually being the point of reference, as numerous expressions from the languages ​​of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy have been "naturalized" in Austria via Vienna. These primarily relate to everyday culture as it manifests itself in daily life both on the private and official level and which are often hardly or not at all used outside of Austria, e.g. Krida"Negligently or fraudulently induced insolvency" (from Italian) or Fogosch "Zander, Schill" (from Hungarian). Many of these words are also common in Bavaria, such as sekkieren "Torment, harass, annoy, etc.", Salettl"Garden shed, arbor", sometimes in the whole of southern Germany such as Strizzi "Tramp, reckless and work-shy person, pimp" (11). The word, among other things, shows how superficial research is often done here Chestnuts, which is attributed to Austrian German, although it is widespread in the whole of southern Germany as "landscape" (12). Where the plural Chestnuts is not common, the tasty sweet chestnuts are called Chestnuts (13), which reduces the difference to the morphology, similar to the successful bair. girl, which morphologically with the plurals"Aufgenordet" was: in correspondence to guys was also created Girls, through intra-German language contact (better: Variety contact, see below) also common in Austria today.

The feudal relationships ended once in Austria due to its geographical location on the one hand and being part of the Habsburg Empire on the other different They run from the “Reich” or federal (and domestic) German area today pretty much the same, especially when it comes to modern foreign word movements, such as Anglicisms and Americanisms (14). With these, Austria is now being overwhelmed, especially via the mass media together with the West German linguistic usage. Instead of Workplace one speaks of job, instead of Ö-3 hearing car driver of Ö-Driver (15),instead of Boy / boy of Boy and instead of Staircase of Stairs (nhaus). North German substandard and domestic German standard are also adopted completely uncritically (e.g. Kicked out instead of Kick out, Failure ‘Failure, disappointment’, be in a good mood ‘Be in good shape’, have something with you ‘Have something with you, carry something with you, etc.), even on ORF (16), also in some daily newspapers, even in the quality press and in official use, e.g. butcher instead of Butcher, the content (17) instead of (as previously in Austrian legal texts) the salary. And this in a country that around 90% does not feel as "German" (18), which obviously does not resonate with language behavior (19). The same takes place in the Free State of Bavaria, where a strongly developed national awareness cannot prevent the linguistic "confusion". Austrian German is most likely to be recognized straight away in the pronunciation (20) and "atmospheric" (21):

The totality of the standard language differences between the German used in Austria and the German used in Germany, which can be determined in the form of characteristics of individual words, may at first glance not be large enough to be recognized by one To speak “Austrian German”. Nevertheless, it is these differences - plus nuances in language behavior - that give German in Austria an unmistakable and non-interchangeable individuality and of which that linguistic atmosphere[Emphasis added by me, H.D.P.] from which, for example, literary texts of Austrian origin can be recognized as such.

2.1. To the EU list of Austria-specific expressions

But let's take note of these developments and findings and turn back to Austrian German, because the famous EU list of Austria-specific expressions (22) shows how much wishful thinking and reality often diverge: see here (EU list).

2.2. Language contact and "variety contact"

Handbooks on language contact only recognize interference and contact between individual languages ​​and / or dialects, but do establish a connection between language change and varieties (23). The case, as it appears when the "Federal German" influences Austrian German, is obviously not foreseen by the language contact researchers. Therefore there is a terminological deficit here. Basically we have three nationalVarietiesOf the german, Federal German, Swiss German and Austrian German, and three linguistic geographical varieties, North, Within- and South German infront of us. Neither “Federal German” nor “South German” are absolutely uniform, you just have to think of the Bavarian major dialect, which is both “Federal German” and “Austrian German” and also “South German”. Due to the historical development, "Binnendeutsch" has become the "Federal German" par excellence via the FR of Germany including its cultural and economic-political potential from the southern German and Austrian point of view (24) and thus exerts an influence that supplants all other varieties. Similar to the way German-Slovenian language contact in Carinthia, Slovene-German language contact in Carniola or English-Irish language contact in Ireland (largely) led to the establishment of German, Slovene and English, domestic German-South German "language contact" also follows the implementation of West German language forms yourself. Since this contact takes place within the German-speaking area, “language contact” is probably not an adequate term. I want this appearance as Variety contact describe. The “West German” national variety exerts a much stronger influence on the other varieties than the other way around. Basically, acquisitions are like puff / puff, bye) and it makes no sense or. someone else(instead of blow / breath, servus and it makes no sense or. someone else) in Austria and Bavaria to be rated the same as English job, drink and Event in the German-speaking area. English words are language contact phenomena, federal or German words and expressions appearances of variety contact; Both are also available the other way around, as in German. kindergarten (engl. kindergarten) and southern German girl show in inland German.

Austrian German does not form an absolute unit, but rather shows an inner stratification - far more clearly in the spoken language than in the written language - and various relationships to the other southern German varieties (25); One is all too inclined to assume what is typical of Vienna for all of Austria. But Vienna has historically been the hub through which many languages ​​from other languages ​​of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (not only) got into Austrian German (e.g. powidl from Czech, see below, Pancakes about czech. palačinka from Hungarian, < palacsinta ‘Pancake’, loan word plăcintă ‘Pate’ placenta), and many inland German expressions have also been "naturalized" in Austria via Vienna (e.g. carpenter opposite bair. Carpenter). This also applies to numerous Yiddish words, such as colloquial Ezzes pl. 'Advices', Schmattes 'Tip', Tinnef ‘Worthless stuff’, Geseres / Geseire ‘Whining, useless talk’ (bayer. Geseier), Bahol (mundartl., Vienna), Noise, vortex ’etc.

3. Examples of voice contact

Language contact at the level of the Austrian variety (s) of standard German is established just Noticeable in vocabulary and in some (but mostly colloquial) expressions. Some examples from the Italian: Stampiglie ‘Stamp (device)’, Krida ‘Negligently or fraudulently caused insolvency’, Fisole 'Bean', Correspondence card ‘Postcard’ (to Italy. carta di correspondenza (26)); from the Hungarian: Fogosch ‘Zander’, Shinacle ‘Rowboat, small boat’, Pancakes ‘Pan (s) cake’ (see above); out slavicLanguages: Toilet cup ‘Selchwurst’, Kolatsche ‘A pastry’, powidl ‘Plum and plum jam’ (27). Such a list can be continued at will with the help of the Duden and ÖWB, e.g. snack ‘Snack, snack’ (from Slovenian (28), only eastern and southern Austria, in the west from Romanic Marende), Brimsen "Sheep cheese" (from Slovak). But as a rule it seems to be more the case that language contact is less for Austrian German in its entirety, but more regional exercises (or has exercised) its effects, down to the regional, customary linguistic and written language, e.g. in Carinthia: Twill ‘Dille’ (twill), Sasaka ‘Minced meat (made from bacon as a spread)’ (zaseka), Jauk ‘Föhn’ (jug 'South'), Potitze ‘A pastry (roll cake)’ (potica 'Cake'), Strankerl (so.), Pogatsche (also Pohacha like [po'ha: tʃa]) ‘a (sweet) white bread or cake’ (29), Mash ‘Netzleibchen’ (majželj from the German, too bair. Corn ‘Schnitte’) etc. In total there are around 180 Slovene loanwords in Carinthia, not quite half of which are still used today in rural dialect, but over 15% are in common use in Carinthian colloquial language. For more information, see Carinthia. A second contact area is Vienna (For details see Czech), about which some common Bavarian (e.g. Horseradish ‘Horseradish’ křen, Kolatsche / Golatsche [-á-]‘A pastry’ koláč 'Cake', Ainetz ‘Fork drawbar’ ojnice, Strizzi see above etc.), parish German ((30) e.g. goldfinch ‘Goldfinch’ stealc, stehlík, siskin čížek, cranberry bruslina, polka půlka, Slivovitz ‘Plum schnapps’ slivovice etc.) and eastern austrian (such as. powidl ‘Plum sauce’ povidla ‘Mus’) entered our language. The specific ones are to be separated from this Viennese Loan words from Czech such as schetzkojedno ‘All one’ (in the phrase that's me schetzkojedno 'It does not matter to me',obsolete, všecko jedno) or pomali [po'ma: li] ‘slowly’ (po málu) as well as mixed formations such as Feschak ‘Schönling’ (Ger. smart + Czech. -ák). From the kitchen language (31) it should be mentioned among others Buchtel / Wuchtel ‘Yeast pastries, yeast cakes’ (to Czech. buchta ‘Risen yeast cake’ + bair. Diminutive -el), Halushka ‘Pasta dish with curd cheese (and bacon)’ (haluška ‘Small dumpling, small, thick noodle’), Liwanze ‘A pastry, cake’ (lívance pl., to líti 'to water'; they are poured as a liquid batter into a pan with indentations and served sprinkled with cinnamon and sugar (32)) or Skubanki / Stubanki pl., too -en ‘A potato dish (potato dumplings, potato noodles)’ (škubánky to škubati ‘Pluck, pluck’), these are ‘cut out’ of the potato dough and baked in fat.

In addition, there are a number of Czech influences on the (East Central Bavarian) Viennese dialect, especially in phonetics / phonology, such as the loss of the nasal vowels, the tendency to monophthongize the diphthongs and the loss of the closed e and O, to name a few important ones (33). At the r there are similarities between Czech and Viennese on the one hand and Slovenian and Carinthian on the other (34).

Some idioms (35) are also the result of language contact with Italian Words e.g. have a gizzi ‘To be angry, angry’ (especially Vienna, about Italy. guizzo 'Pull out'), to have a Gspusi with someone ‘To have a love’ (also Bavarian, to Italy. sposi ‘Bridal couple’), have a taste for something ‘To be covetous for something’ (also Bavarian, to Italy. gusto ‘Taste, Joy’); With CzechWords e.g. go to Lepschi ‘Having fun, hanging around’ (to Czech. lepší ‘Better’), with family name: tell Mrs. Blaschke! ‘That is untrue!’, I am always the novak ‘I always pay on top of it’. By H. Qualtinger's figure (recte) Trávníček the phrase originated Travniček would say ... ‘According to popular opinion, I would say ...’. On a Hungarian Twist is based always be the Teschek 'Always be the fool' (too Hungarian. tessék 'Here you go)'); another Hungarian word is encountered in do a mulachag ‘Have an exuberant party’ (to Hungarian. mulatság ‘Amusing’). - Unclear origin is the widespread phrase Tschari (Tschali) go 'get lost'; Is an example of an “Austrian” phrase originating in Vienna Pre-script is pre-script, for example ‘Regulations must be adhered to at all costs, even if they are perceived as harassment’. A common Bavarian-Austrian archaism is in someone a little too diligent (in Bavaria: with diligence) to do ‘Do something on purpose (mostly malicious)’ (reflecting the Middle High German meaning zeal, quarrel, anger ’).

4.Austrian and Bavarian / Bavarian German

All of this shows that language contact has changed very little in the Bavarian or southern German character of German in Austria - this designation does more justice to the facts than “Austrian German”. In any case, the non-German languages ​​of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy did not significantly influence German in Austria. Rather, this one is conditioned by the statehood of Austria national variety in the sense that communication within the state is directed towards one's own centers, which also creates differences to the closest related Bavarian, not on the basis of the Bavarian vernacular, but rather on the level of the school and lingua franca, which cannot and cannot be denied already observed a few years ago by Hermann Scheuringer and last documented by Ludwig Zehetner in a word list (36). This is how it is used in reading pronunciation in Austria a always “light”, in (old) Bavaria mostly “dark”, almost like å, pronounced, also in younger loanwords and foreign names such as Bank (Financial institution) and America (also [å]). The voiceless plosives on this side and on the other side of the state border, realized in dialect as Lenes, are pronounced differently, e.g. a common dialectal [dae] ‘part ’corresponds to the linguistic Bavarian [tHael] vs. Austrian [dael]. The tendency to monophthongize from Vienna ouch and ai remains limited to the Austrian national territory etc. (37) The Bavarian-Austrian differences in vocabulary are quite obvious, they are either related to the state administration (and then affect the entire FR of Germany), e.g. High School vs. Matura, Right of way vs. priority and (official language) January vs. January or it is about "Austrianzisms" that were originally typical for Vienna and the east or south-east of Austria and have spread to the state border, e.g. snack vs. Snack, carpenter vs. Carpenter or Chimney sweep vs. Chimney sweeper. This still applies in Vorarlberg today Carpenter and in Tyrol and parts of Salzburg Chimney sweeper - Note that it is a secondary "adjustment" after the state border (38), which is relatively young and not yet fully completed.

Overall, however, the differences in vocabulary between Austria and Bavaria are rather small (39): in Zehetners Reverse dictionary (40) „Standard German - Bavarian German"Of over 2500 words, only around 50 or 2% are shown as" Austrian "; a close inspection of the material seems to lower the number, but not to increase it, as the following examples show:

Ass ‘Eat, abscess’ (Ass is dialect according to ÖWB, it is not to be called "Austrian" in the narrower sense, because the oa-Have mouth types Oass like in Bavaria itself and e.g. in Tyrol and Salzburg. All of them share a common Bavarian Eat underlying; this sound has spread far west from Vienna and is therefore perceived by Bavaria as "Austrian")

faschen, fasche (n) ‘Fatschen, Fatsche (n)’ ("Bavarian" pronunciation also in Austria regionally dialect and colloquial common, e.g. in Carinthia, vice versa -sh- according to Zehetner "seldom" also in Bavaria)

Schas ‘Intestinal wind, fart; (in Bavaria :) Scheiß, Pfurz ’(according to ÖWB" rough ", regarding a the same applies as for Ass, see above, see Tyrol Lap)

Celery ‘The celery’ (according to ÖWB, both are permitted, the also common in large parts of Austria, e.g. in Carinthia, mostly Celery) stressed; see Vienna the Zeller)

Waserl ‘Waiserl’ (according to ÖWB, Eastern Austrian or “dialect, scenic”, including Salzburg Woaserl, a pronunciation that also gives Zehetner, which shows that regarding the a same case as at Ass present)

Plum ‘Plum’ (only spelling difference such as chick next to bair.-east. Chickens).

The words from this meritorious list in detail:

Bassena 'Spout; Waschlavor ’(in Vienna means Bassena ‘Common wall fountain on the corridor of old houses’)

Belly spot ‘Belayer’

Topping-out ‘Hebwein, topping-out ceremony’

Chanterelles (according to ÖWB "Eastern Austrian, scenic") ‘Reherl, Rehling’ (according to other information is also Chanterelles common in some parts of old Bavaria; in Carinthia they also say Fox, in Tyrol too chanterelle; Reherl etc. also occurs in Styria)

Egg dish ‘Scrambled Eggs’

Egg white 'Protein'

minced loaf ‘Fleischpflanz (er) l’ (each a "password"for the respective country, but a relatively young one; the bair. Word lies Pancake tents, a kind of pancake,which can also be found in old Austrian cookbooks, e.g. Carinthia Türkenpfanzel ‘Kind of corn pancake’, Blood pancake ‘A pancake made from black pudding [Blunzen] mass’ etc.)

Scraps ‘(Cleaning) rags, rags’

Butchers and butchers ‘Butcher’ (also like Western Austria!)

Meat loaf s. minced Laiberl

Flypracker ‘Fly swatter, flapper’

Fridattensuppe (recte or after ÖWB sliced ​​pancake) ‘Pancake soup’

Gelse ‘Schnack, Muck (en), Sta (u) nze (n)’

Geseres ‘Geseier’ (ÖWB: Eastern Austria)

Same = Topping-out

snack 'Snack' (each a "password"for the respective country!)

Croissants ‘Hörndl, Beugerl’ (meaning ‘elongated roll, small beugerl’ also common in Bavaria)

Marende (especially Tyrol) ‘Snack’

Masel "Massel" (pronunciation and spelling)

Matura 'High School; Abi [missing in the dictionary part], Abs ’(only the latter in the dictionary part, yes Section does not correspond to the Austrian Matura)

supper 'dinner' (supper or. Supper (41), east and south-east Austrian, the west has Dinner, the federal states of Salzburg and Upper Austria bordering Bavaria mostly also have dinner)

never more 'never'

Obers 'Cream' (in my opinion is Obers mainly in eastern Austria and partly also common in Bavaria; in the west and south of Austria is also cream, especially in the west only cream common)

Panier ‘Breading; (in Bavaria :) Pànàt ’

Badge (according to ÖWB ‘casually’, officially vignette) 'Wapperl'

Press head, sausage ‘Press bag, rind stomach’

Ring lot ‘Reineclaude; (in Bavaria :) Ringlo ’

Jacket ‘Sákko’ (emphasis; the diminutive Sackl also available in Austria)

Schill ‘Zander’

Blow (upper) ‘Whipped cream’ (see above Obers)

Schnackerl ‘Schnackler, Hetscher’

Sweden bomb ‘Mohrenkopf’

Selcher ‘Metzger’ (more precisely: ‘who selcht’ [the basic word is common in Bavaria], also regionally in Austria Selcher ‘Smoked sausage, smoked scalded sausage’)

style ‘Style’ (with pronunciation [ʃti: l] like stalk, which one also encounters in Austria)

Podium ‘Stool, stool; Shame (r) l ’