How do China's provinces get their abbreviations

China at a glance

State name: People's Republic of China (Abbreviation: PR China or China)

National flag: red flag with five gold stars

National coat of arms: five stars above the Tian'anmen Gate, surrounded by a wreath of ears, including a gear

National Anthem: March of the Volunteers

"Stands up! No longer slaves!

The great wall rebuilt out of our flesh and blood.

China's people in great distress.

The last cry of the oppressed sounds:

Stands up! Rise!

With a thousand bodies, one heart in spite of the enemy cannons:

Forward! Forward! Ahead!"

Capital: Beijing

Head of State: President Xi Jinping

Head of Government: Prime Minister Li Keqiang

National holiday: October 1st

Language: Standard Standard Chinese, plus dialects and languages ​​of the national minorities

Currency: Yuan (Renminbi)

 

geography

China has a diverse topography with large plateaus, mountain ranges, extensive plains, hills and smaller and larger valley basins. Mountains make up two thirds of the total area.

Location: East Asia, latitude 18 ° to 53 ° north, longitude 73 ° to 135 ° east

Climate: continental in the north, subtropical in the south

Size: 9.6 million square kilometers (the third largest country after Russia and Canada)

National borders: 22,800 km

Coastline: 32,000 km (18,000 km on the mainland and 14,000 km on islands)

Neighboring countries: a total of 14 countries, North Korea, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam.

Highest point: the Qomolangma at 8,844.43 meters above sea level, also the highest peak in the world

Deepest mainland point: Lake Aydingkol in the Turpan Basin at 155 meters below sea level

Longest river: the Yangtze with 6300 km, also the third longest river in the world

Largest lake: the Qinghai Lake with 4274.07 square kilometers

Largest island: Taiwan with an area of ​​35,863 square kilometers

 

population

With a population of around 1.37 billion, China is the most populous country in the world.

Population growth: approx. 0.57%

Life expectancy: 73 years (35 years in 1949)

Population structure: 48.7% female, 51.3% male

Age structure: The proportion of people between 15 and 59 years old is approx. 70.1%, and of people older than 60 approx. 13.3%.

Degree of urbanization: approx. 52.6% (as of 2012)

Per capita income (as of 2012):

the per capita disposable income of the urban population: 24,565 yuan (approx. 3,070 euros)

the average net income of the rural population: 7,917 yuan (about 990 euros)

Nationalities: 56 nationalities in total. The Han nationality makes up about 92% of the total population and is the largest ethnic group.

Religions: In China, freedom of belief is constitutionally guaranteed. There are more than 100 million followers from 5500 religious communities, 139,000 places of worship. The most important religions are Buddhism, Taoism, Islam and Christianity.

Internet users: With around 600 million (by the end of 2013) Internet users, China takes 1st place worldwide.

 

The political system

The system of people's congresses

The system of people's congresses is the basic political system of China, and the National People's Congress (NPC) is the highest organ of state power. The NPC and the local people's congresses at different levels are formed through democratic elections.

The people's congresses have four important functions and rights: legislation, supervision, appointment and removal of civil servants, and decision-making on important state affairs.

The legislative period of the NPK is 5 years. The plenary session takes place once a year. The NPK Standing Committee is the permanent organ of the NPK and exercises supreme state power when there are no meetings.

The system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation

In addition to the Chinese Communist Party, there are eight other political parties in China. The system of multi-party cooperation differs from the multi-party, two-party or one-party system. The CPC is the ruling party. The other democratic parties are neither ruling nor opposition parties, but parties involved in government. You are involved in the administration of the country and cooperate with the CPC in building the socialist cause.

The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) is an important institution for multi-party cooperation and political consultation. It has a national committee, a standing committee and nine special commissions at the central level and the local committees at the local level. The legislative period of the CPPCC National Committee is 5 years. Their plenary session takes place once a year.

The system of regional autonomy for national minorities

In China there is a system of regional autonomy of nationalities. Of the 55 national minorities, 44 have their own autonomous regions, the population of which makes up 71 percent of the total population of the national minorities. For the other 11 national minorities for whom regional autonomy cannot be practiced due to the small population and small settlement areas, 9 autonomous communities were established. At present, China has 5 autonomous areas, 30 autonomous counties, 120 autonomous counties and 1,173 autonomous municipalities.

One country, two systems

The central idea of ​​the "one country, two systems" policy is that the main part (mainland) of the country implements a socialist system within the People's Republic of China, while Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan maintain the capitalist system. The aim is the peaceful reunification of China and maintain stability and prosperity in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, one country is the prerequisite for two systems.

 

Administrative structure

China is administratively divided into the following levels:

1. The whole country is subdivided into provinces, autonomous regions, cities directly under the government and special administrative areas;

2. Provinces and autonomous areas are divided into districts or autonomous counties, counties or autonomous counties and cities;

3. Districts, autonomous districts and cities at the district level are divided into municipalities, nationality municipalities and localities. Municipality and locality are the administrative units at the lowest level.

Table of administrative units at provincial level (as of 2010)

Administrative units at the provincial level

(Ins. 34) Seat of government area

(in 1000 square kilometers) inhabitants

(in millions)

4 cities directly under the government

BeijingBeijing16,819.61

ShanghaiShanghai6.3423.02

Tianjin Tianjin 11,912.94

ChongqingChongqing8228.85

23 provinces

HebeiShijiazhuang 187,771.85

ShanxiTaiyuan15635.71

Liaoning Shenyang 145,943.75

JilinChangchun187,427,46

HeilongjiangHarbin46038.31

Jiangsu Nanjing 102,678.66

ZhejiangHangzhou 101,854.43

AnhuiHefei139,659.50

FujianFuzhou121,436.89

JiangxiNanchang166,944.57

ShandongJinan156,795.79

HenanZhengzhou16794.02

HubeiWuhan 185,957.24

HunanChangsha211,865.68

GuangdongGuangzhou178104.30

Hainan Haikou 358.67

SichuanChengdu48580.42

GuizhouGuiyang176,134.75

YunnanKunming39445.97

ShaanxiXi'an205,637,33

GansuLanzhou454,425,58

QinghaiXining 721,25,63

TaiwanTaibei35,8723.16

5 autonomous areas

Inner MongoliaHohhot1197,524.71

Guangxi of Zhuang NationalityNanning237,746.03

TibetLhasa1228,43,0

Hui Nationality Ningxia Yinchuan62,86,3

Xinjiang of Uighur nationalityÜrümqi1664,921,81

2 special administrative areas

Hong Kong Hong Kong 1.1037.1

MacauMacao0.0280.55

 

economy and society

Development of the national economy

China was economically backward before 1949. Since the founding of the PRC, the economy has developed relatively quickly. Especially since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy in 1978, China has developed rapidly and achieved great economic success. China has now become the largest export nation and the second largest economy in the world.

For the past three decades, China has focused on growth. The task now is to redesign the economic structures. The motto is: instead of quantity, more quality and efficiency. In 2012, China's gross domestic product reached 51,932.2 billion yuan, with a growth rate of 7.8% over the previous year. The GDP per capita was $ 6100. The volume of foreign trade was $ 3,866.7 billion, overtaking that of the United States for the first time in history. In the first half of 2013, the gross domestic product was 24,801 billion yuan. It increased by 7.6%.

Income and employment of the population

With the rapid development of the economy, the income of the Chinese population has also increased sharply. By 2020, both the GDP and the per capita income of the population are to be doubled compared to 2010. In 2012, the average per capita net income of the rural population increased by 10.7% compared to the previous year and amounted to 7,917 yuan. The per capita disposable income of the urban population rose 9.6% to 24,565 yuan.

The employment situation has steadily improved in recent years. In 2012, the number of jobs in cities increased by 1.26 million. The unemployment rate was 4.1%. Nationwide the number of employees reaches 767 million.

 

The 12th Five Year Plan

Despite great economic successes, China continues to face enormous tasks. The 12th five-year plan for economic and social development from 2011 to 2015 therefore provides for a reorientation of the growth model, development strategy, redistribution, industrial policy and society.

Of all development goals, the improvement of the everyday life of the population is considered to be the most important task. For example, the minimum wage is to be increased by 13% every year. The number of city dwellers enrolled in old age insurance is expected to reach 357 million. Urban and rural health insurance participation rates are expected to increase by 3%. As for the housing difficulties of low-income groups in cities, 36 million social housing is to be built. By 2015, the share of social housing is expected to be around 20 percent.

 

Culture and tourism

Culture

Chinese culture is one of the oldest in the world. It is generally believed that Chinese culture has three origins: the civilization on the Yellow River, on the Yangtze River and the Nordic steppe culture. Chinese culture is characterized by three main features:

Long history: Chinese culture has been rooted for 300,000 years and has had human civilization for 10,000 years. The first state was founded 5000 years ago.

Continuity: The Chinese culture was able to flourish again and again despite repeated wars and foreign rule. Intangible goods such as legends and stories have been preserved. Calligraphy, painting and poetry have also been passed down for thousands of years.

Tolerance: "A thousand rivers flow into the sea". Chinese culture has a gigantic receptivity. It has absorbed all previous external influences and made them part of Chinese culture.

Chinese opera

Chinese opera is actually the traditional Chinese theater that combines music, language, play, dance, masks and martial arts. It only began to crystallize in the 12th century and has a history of around 800 years. Today there are more than 300 local types of opera in China. Peking Opera has the most fans in China and is best known in the West. It developed in the 19th century from a synthesis of other forms of opera and singing styles, and is worthy of being part of the essence of Chinese culture.

Chinese acrobatics

Acrobatics in China has a history of more than 3,500 years. It originally emerged in the everyday life of the population, was later spread in the imperial courts and was ultimately considered to be one of the most representative arts in China. While acrobatics is traditionally one of the circus arts in the West, in China acrobatics include air and ground acrobatics, artistry, clowning, magic, pantomime and animal training. In addition, Chinese acrobatics are characterized by their extraordinary dexterity and high level of artistry.

Chinese traditional music

Chinese music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world. The Chinese word for music "Yinyue" consists of two syllables with different meanings: tone and joy. Melody and timbre are the most important expressive features in Chinese music. The main traditional Chinese music types are folk song, spoken song and instrumental music. The folk song genre is divided in three genres, which can be found both in the north and in the south: Haozi (work song), Shan'ge (mountain member) and Xiaodiao (folk tunes). "Quyi" or "Shuochang" denotes the art of chanting from which it There are over 200 types in China. The zither "Qin", the lute "Pipa" and the two-sided string instrument "Erhu" are the most common solo instruments. There is a wide repertoire of compositions for them.

Chinese literature

In the course of historical development, the basic spirit of Chinese literature finds its greatest expression in the classics. It shows the affection of the Chinese people for aesthetics, and it carries ideals and ideas of the whole nation. It shows its individuality, its elegance. There were various styles of literature, from the archaic myths to the Tang and Song poems to the novels and short stories of the Ming and Qing dynasties, and each style had its heyday. Throughout its development, which spanned thousands of years, numerous poets and writers have created immortal works.

Chinese calligraphy

The Chinese characters developed from images and symbols. The writing and the development of the script led to an independent art form of calligraphy. In all dynasties of Chinese history there were great calligraphers whose calligraphy and style represented the penmanship of the respective period. Calligraphy is still very popular.

Chinese painting

Chinese painting has a special character. You need special brushes, ink and rubbing stones, which is why this type of painting is also called ink painting. With its unique character, it represents another important art direction alongside western oil painting. Chinese painting can look back on a tradition of over 5000 years. She attaches great importance to the essentials of the objects shown. A good picture should not only be beautiful to look at, but also reflect the spirit of the object and be lively at the same time.

Paper cutouts

Paper cutting is one of the most popular folk arts in China. It is widely believed that the paper cuttings have their origins in ancient religious prayer and burial ceremonies. During the Chinese New Year or Spring Festival, there is a tradition in many parts of the country to stick paper cuttings of various designs on the window or door. They underline the happy atmosphere of the holidays.

tourism

China offers numerous tourist attractions. Geographically, China has an absolute difference in altitude of 9003 meters. It has a large territory with a variety of beautiful and unique landscapes. China is one of the cradles of world civilization. Chinese civilization has a history dating back thousands of years. Many nationalities live in China, each with their own customs and traditions. The country is also famous for its craftsmanship and, last but not least, for its cuisine.

World cultural heritage and world natural heritage

With 37 entries in the World Heritage List, China ranks 3rd internationally in this regard. Of these, 25 objects belong to the cultural heritage, 7 to the natural heritage, 4 to the cultural and natural heritage and 1 to the cultural landscape.

In addition, China is one of the countries with a great intellectual and cultural heritage. The Kunqu Opera, the Peking Opera, the acupuncture and the ancient Chinese quiz (zither) art have been included in the UNESCO list of the representative works of the oral and intangible heritage of mankind, the ancient Dongba script of the Naxi nationality inscribed in the list of the world's memorial heritage and the Tibetan epic King Gesar, the longest historical epic in the world, entered in the list of the millennium anniversary of the world.

The Chinese folk festivals

The Spring Festival in China

The Spring Festival is the first traditional Chinese festival of the year. The festival used to be called New Year's Day because, according to the traditional lunar calendar that has always been used in Chinese history, it falls on the first day of the first month and was therefore considered the beginning of a new year. After the end of the last dynasty in 1911, China introduced the Gregorian calendar (solar calendar), and the New Year according to the lunar calendar was named the Spring Festival.

It usually falls in the period from late January to mid-February according to the solar calendar. During the Spring Festival, traditional events take place in many places, of which the lion and lantern dances, land boating (a dance) and walking on stilts are popular.

The Lantern Festival

The 15th day of the first month according to the lunar calendar with the first full moon night after the Spring Festival is the Lantern Festival. Since time immemorial, there have been yuanxiao, boiled little balls made of sticky rice flour with a sweet filling, which symbolize the family coming together. The tradition of admiring lanterns on this evening goes back to the first century.

The Dragon Boat Festival

It is observed on the fifth day of the fifth month according to the lunar calendar. It is believed to have been made in memory of Qu Yuan (around 340-278 B.C.E.), a patriotic poet of ancient China. Qu Yuan lived during the Warring States Period and was from the Kingdom of Chu. Because he failed to realize his political ideals and save his country from decline, desperate he threw himself into the Miluo River on the fifth day of the fifth month with a stone in his arms. When the people on the river heard this, they rowed out in boats to retrieve his body. Since then, dragon boat races have been held every year on China's rivers in memory of Qu Yuan, and sticky rice dumplings (zongzi) wrapped in bamboo leaves are thrown into the river to sacrifice Qu Yuan.

The moon festival

The 15th day of the eighth month according to the lunar calendar falls in the middle of autumn, which is why the festival is also called the Mid-Autumn Festival. In ancient times, cakes that had been baked with great care were offered to the moon god at every mid-autumn festival. After the sacrifice, the pieces of cake were distributed and eaten by everyone, which symbolizes the coming together of the family. This custom is still widespread in China today.