What types of combined foundations are there

The foundation types in construction define the foundations

Four types of foundation

A structure that protrudes above the ground must be supported and anchored in the ground. The physical forces act vertically and horizontally. The foundation, usually corresponding to the foundation, transfers the load of the structure in one or both directions. A distinction is made between four types of foundation that overlap or parallel in terms of the construction method to which foundations can be assigned:

1. Deep foundations
2. Shallow foundations
3. Pile foundations
4. Anchors

Legal norms

The type of foundation chosen depends heavily on the function of the structure. The building rules of DIN 1054-1 for proven safety in geotechnical engineering apply to buildings and other closed rooms that are entered. The standard supplements DIN EN 1997-1, which defines soil properties in earthworks and foundations.

The standards are only used to a limited extent for a concrete amuer in the garden or a natural stone wall on a slope, for example. Open walls can be additionally supported and have compacted soil due to their nature as a natural foundation.

Foundation designs in the different types of foundation

The following foundations are used for deep foundations

  • Single foundations
  • Block foundations
  • Point foundations
  • Quiver foundations

The following foundations are used for shallow foundations

  • Strip foundations
  • Column foundations
  • Foundation slabs

The following types of piles are used for pile foundations

  • Prefabricated piles
  • In-situ concrete piles
  • Composite piles

The piles are bored in, flushed in, pressed in, rammed in, shaken in or screwed in.

Anchoring is a special case

  • Temporary steel cable structures
  • Hooks and eyes embedded in the foundations
  • Special solutions

Frost protection and durability

The majority of the types of foundation relate to concrete foundations. Some types of foundations can also be made of wood or stone. In addition to the static requirements, the frost behavior and durability of the material must be taken into account.

Frost protection is achieved through a minimum depth of a foundation. Therefore, even if structurally and statically possible, a shallow foundation combined with a deep foundation is often required. Steel as reinforcement of both the building structure and the foundation changes the selection of possible types of foundation in the construction industry.

When preparing foundations or foundations for walls or walls, make sure that forces are distributed as well as possible. If in doubt, proceed according to the motto “bigger, deeper, wider”.

Author: Stephan Reporter
Article image: weerasak saeku / Shutterstock
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