What are words that rhyme with the visor

Echtreim - The rhyme dictionary



Tobias Lutzi had a really unusual idea. At the Law Faculty of the University of Cologne, he wrote his exercise in criminal law in rhymes. Was the cell phone stolen or not? Look what he's talking about:

Right in rhyme

On this page you will find a number of jurisprudence in rhyming form, probably compiled in painstaking detail. A must for every lawyer!

Even more rhyme in the law

A small but fine collection of legal fields.

ArbG Detmold, 23.08.2007 - 3 Ca 842/07

ArbG Detmold, 23.08.2007 - 3 Ca 842/07

ArbG Detmold (3rd Chamber)
Date: 08/23/2007
File number: 3 Ca 842/07
Form of decision: judgment
References: NJW 2008, p. 782 f.
Procedure: hereinafter: LAG Hamm, 02/21/2008 - 8 Sa 1736/07


The charges get dismissed.
The Cost of the legal dispute must be payed by the complainant.
Disputed amount: € 7,000.00


The dispute arose because of the defendant
dared to submit in legal dispute (ArbG Detmold 1 Ca 1129/06),
which the plaintiff is now very displeasing.
She is therefore demanding compensation for pain and suffering.
That the defendant should be silent
she also demands with resentment.

What is the reason for your complaint?
Well, the defendant has in ......
once owned a gaming establishment.
The applicant for her part, however
received - employed as supervisor -
last for this activity
as hourly wages, as we know it
only seven euros and 11 cents.

Often some customers came there
only in the late evening hours,
around - maybe from the stress of the day
to rest while playing. However
now claims the defendant,
that the plaintiff then dared
so in addition to their supervisory duties
to do other things:

so she wasn't embarrassed
and masturbating on the stool.
What dripped onto the stool
would be in the stool.
For this reason, the game is playable
as "Russian puff" on everyone's lips.
It is true that he now has this event
not even seen on site.

But witnesses would have described him
what the plaintiff was up to there.
He quit because of the customer
the applicant for another reason,
to - he let this be emphasized -
to spare the applicant's reputation.
The plaintiff then sued immediately. (ArbG Detmold 1 Ca 1129/06).
They agreed in comparison
- here one can praise the parties -
for the contract was canceled
and - to round it off -
the plaintiff still resigned.

This was not enough for the applicant,
because you still want more.
You never got in front of all the gamblers
satisfies himself on the stool.
The pain inflicted on her
that will only be enough with money.
The lies - beyond her grasp -
the defendant must refrain.

The applicant requests

1. To order the defendant to pay the plaintiff € 3,000.00 plus 5% interest above the base rate since March 31, 2007;

2. To condemn the defendant for failing to assert that the plaintiff repeatedly carried out sexual acts after work in the service hall of the company ... GmbH;

3. to threaten the defendant that for each case of the offense a fine of up to EUR 250,000.00 or an orderly detention for up to 6 months will be imposed on him.

The defendant requests

reject the complaint.

He thinks that this lawsuit is missing
the reason this is out of the question.
He didn't "invent" anything
no, only reported in the process (ArbG Detmold 1 Ca 1129/06) -
and so justifies the termination -
what witnesses announced to him beforehand
and that he believed.
He was still allowed to do this.

What the applicant now denies
he never spread that either.
He just got in the process
reported as heard. Meanwhile:
after all, he could at will
what the plaintiff was up to there
prove: first, through the witnesses;
they would certainly not hide anything
And secondly through the fabric cover
of the stool that the plaintiff was carrying.
He handed it - the well-packaged one -
already on the case files (ArbG 1 Ca 1129/06 Pl. Cover Bl. 30),
on that now the analysis
the applicant did exactly prove.

What else the parties say
is to be looked up in the file.

Reasons for the decision:

The lawsuit - as the Chamber finds -
is completely unfounded.


Even if the applicant does not like it:
there is no compensation for pain and suffering for them;
because the defendant was allowed here
express how he did it. Therefore
this only applies here in the procedures -
otherwise he is not allowed to reveal anything.

He has - to get to the point -
to the extent that something is perceived
what the one who knows the law
Called "legitimate interest". (see § 193 StGB.)
One could rightly ask here:
can you just say something
if you only hear it from others
and this to whom it concerns indignant?
Isn't there at least the duty
that one informs oneself and not
frivolously spreading something,
what annoys others?

That the defendant is so "relaxed"
invented the hustle and bustle on the stool,
so he is not from the mouth of a witness
learned the "sexual customer",
has not even explained the plaintiff.
So it wasn't forbidden to him either
to use the customer for yourself,
to base the termination on this.
The plaintiff has not
denied that here is a report
the witness took place, the defendant
only reproduces what was said to him.
Also for the fact that the two witnesses
personally maybe tend to
consciously telling the falsehood
was not presented in the process.
So the defendant did not have to
distrust their report
to investigate the matter yourself
what happened in the playable.
Only when his aim was to hurt
to belittle the applicant,
to slander them, to dishonor them
this was clearly to be denied to him.
In short: it ultimately depends on
whether the defendant himself came up with
so, as it were, he was fantasizing
how the plaintiff acted.

And that is why it remains unfounded
what is in the stool
and whether the witnesses saw and heard
what they explained to the defendant.
No, the defendant does not have to
pay high compensation for pain and suffering.


Also unfounded - without question -
here is the injunction.
The applicant did not submit
that the defendant so to speak
now described coram publico
what on the stool she was up to.
Only in the process did he declare
which now outrags the applicant.
He was allowed to do that - as shown,
with which of course that is omitted,
what was ultimately the reason for the lawsuit:
the danger to be feared,
that the defendant is everywhere
tells the "stool fall",
strives among all people
to spread what was said to him.

The cost, that remains to be said;
are to be borne by the applicant. (see § 91 ZPO)

The amount in dispute was according to the laws (cf. §§ 61 Abs. 1 ArbGG, 3 ZPO, 23 Abs. 3 RVG) -
as happened here - to fix.

JUDGMENT OF 06/21/1995, AZ. 8 CS 47 JS 655/95, 8 CS 47 JS 96/95

A HÖXTER, JUDGMENT OF 06/21/1995, AZ. 8 CS 47 JS 655/95, 8 CS 47 JS 96/95


The defendant drove his car despite a BAK of 1.11 per mille. He was sentenced to a fine - and his driver's license withdrawn.

The court took the opportunity to give free rein to its (supposed) poetic talent. The defendant's attorney reacted to this judgment in rhyme as well.

Reference: NJW 1996, 1192-1193


On March 3rd, 1995 drove with a relaxed mind
the defendant went to Beverungen.

He drank at home, especially the beer
and said he could still drive here.

But then he was waved to the side.
It was found that he had been drinking.

In the car it smelled like in the still.
The blood sample showed 1.11 per mille.

This is a negligent drunk driving
a crime, and it may sound harsh.

It's in the law, no turning helps
Section 316 I and II StGB.

So it came to the penalty order.
Reference is made to this.

The defendant says to move the judge:
"That won't happen to me again in the future!"

But there must be a fine
because the accused sinned, not difficult.

It has to be 30 daily rates
to 30, - DM. And who drinks beer and wine,
the driver's license is taken away.

His driving license will be withdrawn
even if one is humane to him.

Can he go soon? No, not at all.
He can do without that for a long time.

5 months ban, no woes or woes,
§§ 69, 69a StGB.

And finally, no complaint helps,
bear all the procedural costs,

because he condemns, that's just the way it is,
Section 465 StPO.

Dr. Hohendorf, judge at the district court

The client, on the one hand satisfied,
on the other hand a little apprehensive,
heard the verdict.

With regard to the factual and legal situations,
the well-known
and after consultation with the client

I hereby announce to everyone in the round ',
for public prosecutor and court:
Appeal - we don't.

Holle, lawyer

In this document we offer a small overview of German-language rhyming dictionaries and rhyme databases. This bibliography was created in the course of the development of ECHTREIM, an algorithmically generated rhyme database of the German language. For the sake of interest, the most important English-language rhyme databases have also been included. Following the bibliography, we have listed a comparison of all known German-language rhyme databases. Using an example word, it is shown which techniques are used in the different projects and which rhyme databases are better than their competitors.

The dictionary of rhymes - Kurt Tucholsky

Genius is hard work

Strange: we all know that there is such a thing. We also all know that it was published by Reclam. But then it's over, because nobody has ever had it in their hands, and if only I could catch the one who has already used it! The first impression is overwhelming. A whole book of rhymes! And correctly arranged, as it should be: those on -afer stand together and those on -obeln and those on -under. Now poet, on the scene! The author, a councilor and doctor of law, meant it very seriously when he did this hell of a job. In the preface he teaches us about the history of the rhyming lexicons, and also tells us of an evil predecessor who gained the fame of having written the thickest rhyming lexicon by, for example, listing six hundred and fifty types of herbs in the rhymes. Pooh!

We, on the other hand, work honestly and off we go. What should actually start is not entirely clear. The poetry? In any case, because the booklet is made for easy use. It is now cheap to make fun of it - and we are frugal enough to realize that this is not the way to go. Nice. But you can read in it. Read very seriously, just like you can read in the Büchmann or in the Brockhaus or in similar institutions that are very wrongly only taken off the shelves for dry practice.

A lot comes to mind when you read the rhyming dictionary. The rhyme - what a funny thing it is! How such a harmony at the end gives the thing another aspect! "The blessing, the sword, whatever." Now just a little more sense: and the poem is finished. Yes - it's done. Just read one of these suicide letters from a man to his beloved (whom he later shot).

Forget Me Not

God protect you, beloved child,
The wind plays in your locks
The dog wags, jumps and barks,
Your courage is fresh and the world is beautiful
God keep you!
God keep you in joy and sorrow,
God keep you forever!

N / A? That and you might not care what was in there - but that the lines had to be set off so nicely and the beloved harmony: that was what moved the heart! But it always doesn't work in the lexicon, I have to say that. Or are these rhymes that I can ask for my forty pfennigs? The proclamation, the action, the insurrection: that rhymes - but they are not rhymes. And as for the words with the final syllable, no, I'm not involved. The knight's leap and the appraisal and the unification and the certification - I want my money back, my money!

And while leafing through I came across the dear old operetta rhymes. Oh, what couplets appear when I read like this: I freeze to death, I feel embarrassed, I train - amuse, animate, command. . . ! Offenbach, Cancan, -ieren -ieren -ieren -ieren. . . !

Sometimes the lexicon rhymes alone: ​​In regard - the boss - the reef. Or: The flea - happy - incognito - somewhere - oh! - raw - gleefully - so - the straw - the studio - a jersey - where? This is the Liebig extract, and anyone can use it to make their own bouillon.

Peter Panter
The Schaubühne, July 9th, 1914, No. 27, p. 35.

Günter Pössiger: The great rhyming dictionary

Günter Pössiger: The great rhyming dictionary. If you want to write poetry, you have to find rhymes. Instructions for hobby and occasional poets. Wilhelm Heyne Verlag Munich, 4th edition 2002

Little can be learned about Pössiger himself, who among other things has published a collection of the most beautiful children's songs and the most beautiful sailor's songs. Judging by his other publications, he has more or less emerged as an anthologist with a keen sense for selling titles, of which the rhyming dictionary is probably the best-known publication. Pössiger was born on October 20th, 1930 in Altenburg and lives in Munich.


Pössiger's Reimlexikon is one of the most frequently used rhyming lexicons, as it clearly outbids the scarce Reclam volume, founded by Willy Steputat, due to its volume of 750 pages and also leaves a useful first impression. In his narrow preface, Pössiger justifies the publication of his new rhyming lexicon in the first edition of 1988 on the basis of the change in language. Since the creation of the great rhyming lexicons in the 19th century, so much time has passed, according to Pössiger, that they no longer cover the current language level could. Only a new dictionary could satisfy the needs of today's poet. The subtitle of his rhyming lexicon makes clear which poet Pössiger has in his sights: The author understands his rhyme lexicon as “instructions for hobby and occasional poets”.

This introductory justification is followed by a brief sketch of the main focal points and omissions (Pössiger lists the standard wording as well as dialectal sounds and terms) and then the instructions for using the rhyming lexicon itself. Since its arrangement is strongly based on its predecessors, this description is clear and precise and ultimately only requires the reader of the rhyming dictionary to use the abstraction to follow the references to other orthographic groups that are identical to the rhyming word sought. All rhyme groups are initially sorted according to the last stressed vowel in the rhyme group. Pössiger indicates the length of the vowel with a colon after the corresponding vowel; this is also historically introduced and does not overwhelm the user of the lexicon. Unfortunately, this mark is missing in the references.

Test word "test"

Rhyming words for the word “test” can therefore first be found under the rhyming ending “-esten” in the section “e” (since “e” is the last stressed vowel of the rhyming ending). There you can find the following rhymes: Digesten, Gebresten, Molesten, Regesten, Westen (with the compound words northwest, southwest, wild west), best, test, contaminate. In the following section you will find the rhymes on -eßten: stressed, pressed, stressed. The words show what a small remark on the first pages of the volume has already introduced: "At the request of the author, the rules of the old spelling have been retained for Das große Reimlexikon."

From the rhyming endings -esten and -eßten, the rhyme lexicon refers to -ästen and -äßten, which can be found earlier in the book due to their different rhyming vowels. If you follow these references, then under -äßten you will find the rhymes branches, guests, branches (to branch off with the compound words), to glaze and fatten (to fatten up with the compound phrase).

Furthermore, the rhymes wet (wet with compound) and wet (wet and wet with compound) are offered.

In addition to the pure references to rhyming endings with the same sound, Pössiger also refers to similar rhyme groups.If you also follow these references, you will also find the reference to “palaces” under branches, which in the plural “palaces” can also rhyme with “test”. However, this case already shows that the rhyming lexicon is not conclusive, because one looks in vain for the "palaces" under branches. If you persevere and also follow the other similar rhyme groups, you can also construct a few compounds based on rhymes that have already been defined (third best, life jackets, fixed). With the word “gesture”, on which one could construct the rhyme “gestures”, it becomes clear that the unmarked integration of dialect pronunciations is problematic. The standard wording of the word is with a long vowel and only in Low German is the variant with a short vowel.

Pössiger's Reimlexikon is now so widespread that you can buy it second-hand on favorable terms. Even the new price of just under 10 € does not really represent a purchase hurdle.

In terms of content, “Das große Reimlexikon” is extensive but not complete. Rhyming words such as “boxes” or “leftovers” really do not represent fancy rhymes, but Pössiger does not. Some of the compounds promised in the introduction can be found, but by no means all. As with all printed rhyming lexicons, there is always the problem that when you leaf through the many rhyming endings you can almost forget what you were looking for. It doesn't work without a pen and paper. Nevertheless, the "large rhyme lexicon" is a useful companion in the search for rhymes.

Hans Olsen: What rhymes with ...

Hans Olsen: What rhymes with ... The large rhyming dictionary with 2388 headwords. Explanations of words, idioms, small verse theory. Südwest-Verlag, Munich 1970.

What rhymes with ... by Hans Olsen in 1970 comes with a lot of self-praise and with thick paper: “Hans Olsen's 'Was rhymes on ...' means in the subtitle 'The great Reimlexikon', because it all only possible rhymes in the greatest extent as raw material. "

The collection compiled by Olsen does not even put 400 pages on paper. In spite of the many announcements on the book title “Word Explanations, Idioms, Little Verses”, the book is a pure rhyming dictionary with the exception of a handful of pages. The cheap paper and the unadorned typesetting of the book are initially negative. However, if you leaf through the book, you come across a rhyming preface by the German writer and poet Gerhart Herrmann Mostar. As a proof of the quality of Olsen's rhyming lexicon, Mostar reaches out to the full and rhymes:

Have you never rhymed before? Try it!
Looked in the boudoir as in the office
Today's man mostly prose -

To rhyme “Büro saw” with “prose” is imaginative and Mostar almost wants to say to you with the verse: If you use this rhyming dictionary, then such verses will also fall to you. To say it right away: it will not work. Because if you turn from these verses to the corresponding page on which the rhymes should be -osa (pink maybe, prose or even curiosa), you will notice that this group of rhymes does not exist in Olsen.

So back to the narrow introduction to get help there. Unlike other rhyming lexicons, Olsen saves with the rhyme groups, you can find out there. One learns that "the stem rhyme and its extensions (by adding an -e, -n, -en) are summarized under one keyword."

So if you are looking for our rehearsal "test", you do not have to look under -est at Olsen (since this group of rhymes is not created), but rather under -est. Olsen already gives the vowel length above the rhyme group, so that one can easily distinguish between -est with a long vowel and -est with a short vowel. In some cases, Olsen's strategy works: If you find “arrest” in the correct rhyme group, you simply add the missing “-en” to come to a rhyme for “test”. That goes through “Asbestos, Certificate, Best, stressed, solid, pressed, Gest, Incest, Manifest” well, but stops working at the latest with “Nest”. Because the plural of “nest” is not “nest-en” but “nests”. Even with “eat-en” the concept does not work - and as a reader and user of the rhyme dictionary you rightly ask yourself why these stones are thrown into the field, which should actually be easier to cultivate through the book?

Once you have thrown the stones out of the field, some of the fertile remains. Rhymes such as “Manifesten”, “Attesten”, “Incest”, “Asbestos” and “Arresten” show that Olsen collected carefully - more carefully than his colleague Pössiger, who explicitly mentions in “Das große Reimlexikon” that he used foreign words added his rhyming dictionary, but none of this series can be found in it.

Once you have got used to the cheap paper and the smell that spreads from it is spread around the room, you have to please the rhyming dictionary with its 2388 keywords. Olsen was not well advised to mention this number in this way, because the book actually contains 2,388 rhyming groups with an estimated 40,000 words. Conclusion: nicely collected, poorly laid.

Peregrinus Syntax: General German Reimlexikon

Peregrinus Syntax: General German rhyming dictionary. With instructions from Hans Magnus Enzensberger. Insel pocket book, Frankfurt a. M. 1982.

“With over 300,000 entries, the 'Allgemeine Deutsche Reimlexikon' by Peregrinus Syntax (vulgo Ferdinand Hempel) is the most complete compendium of its kind that our language has ever produced”, writes Hans Magnus Enzensberger on the back of the reimagined in 1982 as a reprint from the Reimlexikon Year 1826.

And Enzensberger is not wrong with that, because the “Allgemeine Deutsche Reimlexikon” has everything you could want from a printed rhyming dictionary. Hempel first introduces the history of rhyming lexicography in Europe in his foreword and puts his work in a historical context with great knowledge. The two-volume compendium contains rhymes in abundance on almost 2000 pages. Ferdinand Hempel not only lists the “pure end rhymes” as we know it from our current rhyme lexicons, but also dactylic rhyming endings in separate categories - or dedicates a separate section to “female double rhymes” such as “paths of grace”, hare bubbles ”or“ Whores' cures ”.

There is a good reason why Enzensberger puts his foreword to the reprint in front of this rhyming lexicon, because it is by far the best rhyming lexicon there is for the German language - if it weren't for the problems with a reprint from the 19th century . The rhyming groups in the dictionary are shown in Gothic script and only the first and last in the header are reproduced as Antiqua. So if you have problems distinguishing a “shaft-s” from an “f”, you will have a lot of trouble (title of the book read out by a 7-year-old: Unbelievable beutsches Reimlerifon). The rhyming words themselves are then all set in Antiqua. He puts foreign words (which Hempel assumes that they have not or not yet entered into the German language) in italics. Otherwise, the printed image also makes a tidy impression. With little effort you can wander through the columns with the rhymes and pick out the appropriate ones. Compounds are listed under the basic word and are slightly indented, so that here too you have the opportunity to orientate yourself quickly. The three-column print makes the types small, but does not prevent them from being perceived.

Of course, a dictionary that is almost 200 years old is no longer understandable in and of itself. Anyone who has ever had the dictionary of the Brothers Grimm or the Adelung in hand knows what I am talking about. A dictionary from the 19th century simply cannot make sense of “car” or “computer” because neither the words nor the things in themselves existed at the time the dictionary was created, and there is of course a lot in such a dictionary Current events in our time and words like “Glesten”, “Kesten” and “Mesten” simply have to be ignored, as they simply no longer exist. Nevertheless, a good 3/4 of the words have survived to this day, so that this grievance is annoying but not annoying. If you are interested in the language of the ancients as a poet (and you should always be a poet), you may find one or the other treasure among the lost words that is worth recovering.

In the test word “test”, the “Allgemeine Deutsche Reimlexikon” scores well, but contrary to what one might think, it does not list more rhymes than its narrower competitors. The real impact of the lexicon must therefore lie in the fact that it has included rhyme groups that you will look for in vain in other rhyme lexicons.

A reference from “-esten” to “-ästen” is unfortunately missing. Rhymes like “guests” and “palaces” can only be found if you have a certain amount of phonetic knowledge. Is Hempel telling us that in the 19th century “testing” was not allowed to rhyme with “guests”?

Enzensberger leaves this question unanswered in his preface. He himself notes that there are actually such cross-references in the rhyming lexicon, but why this is not the case with -est and -subs is not discussed. Enzensberger points out the way in which Hempel differentiates between long vowels and short vowels: “Our lexicographer uses a typographical means to create clarity here. He uses diacritical marks to differentiate between long and short vowels and instead of one rubric he creates two: ûch and úch. "

Enzensberger is also very apt to differentiate between rhyming lexicon and declining dictionary, because Enzensberger already recognizes the new possibilities of digital rhyming lexicography, but provides the decisive indication why electronic "rhyming lexicons" are actually useless today, as long as they are based on the idea of the retrograde dictionary: “However, the 'retrograde dictionary', in its mathematical consequence, holds not fewer, but even more pitfalls in store for those seeking rhymes than the 'Allgemeine Deutsche Reimlexikon'. The computer-controlled logic at work here doesn't give a damn about the fact that the 'reluctance' and 'starving', 'exogenous' and 'related' when paired together produce hideous freaks. The price for the rigor and rigor of this dictionary is its unfeeling stubbornness, which pays no attention to accents and accents, nor to the length or brevity of the vowels. "

Conclusion: Peregrinus Syntax ’“ General German Reimlexikon ”is a treasure in many respects: due to its scope, its structure, its forewords by Hempel and Enzensberger and, last but not least, its historical dimension. This in turn is a curse and a blessing at the same time, because although we are certainly dealing with the best rhyming dictionary that was created for the German language, the book is suffering from its age. Hardly anyone can read Fraktur text these days. If it weren't so expensive, I would say: A new edition would give the thing a new shine. The reprint of the book may be useful to the publisher, but not to its readers.

Robert Leclercq: Tasks method and history of scientific rhyming lexicography

Robert Leclercq: Tasks method and history of scientific rhyming lexicography. Editions Rodopi N.V., Amsterdam 1975.

It was with a certain awe that we became aware of this book and had hoped to find questions and answers in the study of rhyming lexicography in general. After I'm through the book, the conclusion is poor: The book does not keep what its title promises by far. In his work, Leclercq ultimately has author-related rhyming dictionaries for Middle High German and early New High German writers in his sights. His general introductions stew too much in their own juice. One does not learn anything in this book about dealing with rhyming lexicography outside of its narrow focus. One or the other quote could perhaps be taken out of context and put into the large field of rhyming lexicography, but then unfortunately it is already the end.

Forging verses made easy

Christa Kilian: Forging verses made easy. With many examples and a rhyming dictionary. Bassermann Verlag, 1999.

“An indispensable tool for everyone who wants to express in verse what others need clumsy sentences for”, this is how the publisher introduces Christa Kilian's book - No! But one after anonther:

“Verse Forge Made Easy” is one of those books that is not only a pure rhyme dictionary, but also introduces the theory and practice of rhyme and rhyme in addition to the dictionary. In this case, the first hundred pages are more or less a metric of the German language. Only then does the part of the rhyming dictionary, which extends over 200 pages, begin.

The paper these two parts were printed on is cheap. The set of the book was created with a modern typesetting program and therefore looks tidy. A little playful, however, and with too many graphic elements. One hundred times on the right-hand side there is big and bold “Reimlexikon”, where rhymes could actually be. The actual rhyming dictionary is clearly structured. Kilian dispenses with references to rhyming endings that sound the same by sorting rhymes under -est under-branches and referring to-branches under-branches. At the end of the group of rhymes there is an additional reference to -est and -este, as it is well known that there are also rhymes that can be generated by inflectional forms.

In the rhyming group -esten there is no entry for “Arresten”, but you can, under -est, come across “Arrest” in order to form the plural “Arresten” from there. With Kilian, too, this strange word “Gebresten” appears, which I already know from historical dictionaries. Since this word is completely uncommon today (or am I simply not informed as a South German?), Somehow the suspicion arises that Kilian might have copied her rhyming dictionary somewhere. Certainly, it was carefully selected and weighed up what should still be included in a rhyming dictionary for “debutants” today, but the rhymes seem somehow familiar to me. At least it wasn't Steputat, because entries like “West” and “contaminate”, which one could certainly have selected, are missing from Kilian. Nevertheless, their line-up is good. It does not differ significantly from its competition in the number of recordings when rhyming with the test word “test”.

In Kilian, as with some of her predecessors, vowel length is indicated by a colon after the rhyming vowel. If it is a short vowel, a mark is missing.

The book deserves the greatest praise for an entirely different property. Kilian's introductory metric is good to very good. Well-considered things are described in very simple language. She writes: "These [words] are considered to be rhymes if the sounds after the vowel are identical and sounds before the vowel are different or are missing in a word". With such concise statements, she even surpasses standard works of scholarly examination of rhyme, because in the vast majority of cases there is no reference to the difference in front of the rhyme vowel. Even with the types of rhyme Kilian finds connection to recent rhyme usage. For example, she explains the double rhyme in simple words without harming the matter.

Conclusion: Due to the heavy paper and the generous sentence “forging verses made easy” is not exactly a paperback. One could have done more with the material Ms. Kilian had collected. The introductory metric, in particular, is impeccable over long stretches. The rhyme lexicon itself is mediocre in terms of abundance, but well thought out in its appendix. The same applies here: well done, badly laid.

Claudia Mona Rosa: The right verse for every occasion

Claudia Mona Rosa: The right verse for every occasion. With a small rhyme school and an extensive rhyme lexicon. Anaconda Verlag, Cologne 2007.

“The apt verse” comes to the house for € 7.95 with a pink hardcover and heavy paper. At first glance it is already clear that this book is cheap in every way.If you open it, the glue in the spine of the book breaks and no matter how hard you try and push: the book keeps closing itself as if by magic, because the binding is much too rigid. This is an absolute exclusion criterion for a lexicon - because if you need both hands to hold the book open, how are you supposed to write poetry?

The fact that the book turns out to be an anthology between a small introduction for beginners and a somewhat more detailed introduction for advanced learners over 200 pages is completely hidden from the book's title. As an anthologist I am delighted with this happiness and rummage through the poems arranged according to the occasion. With friends I realize that I can finally get to know the fountain from which poetry albums are filled. A special kind of style bloom is opening up - the reviewer would like to quote one, but the book binding is so stubborn that not even a heavy book is enough to keep the page open. I quickly learn a little one by heart:


Eat bacon and cabbage.
Eat cabbage and bacon,
But don't fall in the dirt

Well, I think to myself, "Farewell!" - on to the rhyming schools. But even here you don't have to linger long, because what you get to read there are flat half-truths that lack any foundation for long stretches. Here someone wrote about metrics who unfortunately has no idea at all. Terms like “clock” and “rhythm” are thrown into the room unexplained and before the anger becomes too big, I grind the pages down to the real thing: the rhyming dictionary.

At least there is nothing wrong with this. The words in the rhyme groups actually rhyme and the vowel lengths of the rhyme vowels are notated at least for long vowels, but the use of the book is very limited due to its binding. It keeps closing and somehow the book seems to want to seal its own fate. With the last bit of will, I read the entries in the test rhyme group -est and -est and the reference articles on -est and -est, because Mona Rosa also uses the option to refer to rhyme groups of the basic word forms. The entries at -esten themselves are narrow, but there are many useful rhymes in the rhyme groups -branches, -este and -est. But since the book has already closed itself again, I'll leave it at that. Without screw clamps this is simply inoperable. Even if this book were the best of its kind in terms of content, you just can't work like that. With Anaconda, I will certainly not become a Pegasus.

Siegfried Rabe: Reimlexikon

Siegfried Rabe: Reimlexikon. With a fun school of poets. Weltbild Verlag. Augsburg 1998.

That can be cheerful! A “fun school of poetry” attracts my entire interest as a language historian. Here someone has to write who has learned it from the bottom up, because "enjoyable" is a very old word that in its historical dimensions does not mean "cheerfulness", but rather "frugality" or "satisfaction". Let's see how the author Siegfried Rabe manages, who, as he writes, works for film and television, radio and advertising.

Rabe's “Reimlexikon” is first introduced by an introduction of almost 70 pages. In addition to the basic features and types of poetry, the reader will find some entertaining information about rhyme and its subspecies, about the most important rhyme schemes, stanzas and poem forms and about the dry field of metrical forms. Perhaps it is due to the audience that Rabe writes a lot of good things, but always breaks off where it actually gets exciting. So it says in the chapter "On the right rhythm":

“On this occasion we should perhaps also talk about how we can even tell whether a syllable is stressed in the poem or not. At first glance, that cannot always be said without any doubt. Although the emphasis on the words is generally based on normal prose language, the rhythm can sometimes deviate from it, and every now and then syllables have to be emphasized that would otherwise not be emphasized. " Well, it's a difficult subject, but the fact that Rabe uses the word “rhythm” makes his explanations pathetic. He writes: "If" am "is stressed, two stressed syllables collide, which doesn't sound nice." No! No! No! Completely wrong construction site: It's not about listening nicely, it's about a metric pattern that is fixed and into which a word or text either fits or doesn't. You just can't talk about metrics unless you refer to the word “meter” ...

Maybe I'm a little too strict with Mr. Rabe, after all, our fields are close together, but it remains annoying when people just don't explain things to me correctly, a lot of art and sound. “What is actually a pure rhyme?”, Rabe asks his readers, and answers confidently: “A rhyme in which the vowels and consonants match exactly, as in“ feet / greetings. However, only the sound image is decisive and not the spelling. " Well, that has already been explained better, not a word about the fact that before this “consonance” a difference in the “sound image” is essential to a pure rhyme, otherwise it becomes quite “unpleasant” if you only rhyme “love” with “love” would have to. And not a word about the vowel lengths, which somehow belong to the “sound image”. But completely wrong construction site! We're here because of the rhyming dictionary.

Not quite, because Rabe's rhyming dictionary takes the errors from his metric. Unfortunately, his rhyming groups do not use the vowel length mark. If you are looking for a rhyme for “camel”, the one group of rhymes with -el “-el = fidel” and a second one refers to -ell, but what is actually decisive is omitted. Also here maybe a little abbreviated for the sake of the audience? Let's try it again and look for rhymes with the test word “test”. The collection of the rhymes below listed is good. After all, seven rhymes, including a real treasure: "Tressten", according to Duden, still in use today with the meaning "provided with strands". Then immediately on to the reference articles - nests and branches, of which I now expect a few additions. With -est I will find what I am looking for on the next page. 21 rhyming words smile at me. I am less lucky with branches - because there is no rhyme group in this category. Only the rhyme group - branches can be found, there again the reference to - branches. That is always “fun” ...!

Mr. Rabe, I enjoyed reading your poems and entertaining explanations for some time, and in some cases, but I have to get serious here. Anyone who goes into the matter with so much inner persuasiveness sets the bar high. And now it has fallen off. From blacksmith to blacksmith: Shoemaker: stick to your last!

Johann Hübner: Newly increased poetic handbook

Johann Hübner: Newly increased poetic handbook. This is a short-cut guide to German poetry, along with a complete rhyme register, brought together for beginners to the best of their ability. Leipzig 1731.

Hübner's “Neu-Vermehrtes poetisches Hand-Buch” is a real classic among rhyming lexicons and, along with Zesen's “Deutschem Helikon”, is the oldest rhyming dictionary in the German language. Its use is correspondingly demanding. The entire dictionary is set in Fraktur in accordance with its time and it takes some practice to deal with it as a layman. However, the internal structure of the dictionary is very similar to the rhyming dictionaries that we know and use today. As in today's rhyming lexicons, the macrostructure also includes the rhyme endings, which are already subdivided into the familiar sequence of the vowels a, e, i, o, u. From there, all rhyming endings are listed in alphabetical order below the rhyming vowel. Extensive material can be found in a three-column print on 450 pages.

Whereas the first edition of Huebner's rhyming lexicon from 1696 was accompanied by "detailed instruction on German rhymes", the 1731 edition is only linked to "brief instructions on German poetry". Most of the book is now taken up by the rhyming dictionary itself.

In our test rhyming word “test” you will find the corresponding rhymes on page 431 under the rhyming vowel “e” and in the rhyme group “-esten”. Unlike today's rhyming lexicons, Huebner mostly forms rhyming words in a phrasematic context. This means that at Hübner there is no “branches” as a rhyme, but the word is represented in a frequently used connection with other words: in this case “on the branches”. If there are several such contextual connections, then Huebner is not afraid to make several such connections: "the best", "not for the best", he has something for the best ", he has it for the best". This is not unwise, since ambiguous rhyming words do not always reveal all their meanings and an entry “West” may draw the attention of one or the other poet to the item of clothing, but not to the direction of the compass. Hübner circumvents this problem by generously associating all the meanings of the rhyming word through the contextual connection: In the case of "west", this would be, for example, the "honor vests" and "from the west". Unfortunately, this idea was no longer carried forward by later rhyming dictionaries.

However, Huebner's inclusion of dialect rhymes is unfortunate. If you consider that a common German language did not even exist when the dictionary was created, Huebner's decision at that time is justifiable, but from today's perspective it is extremely annoying. The rhyme group “-esten” also contains rhyming words such as “solved”, which have a doubly repulsive effect on the modern user of the rhyming lexicon, since both the rhyming vowel and the vowel length no longer correspond to our current idea of ​​a pure rhyme. Since Hüber alphabetizes within a rhyme group according to the first letter of the rhyming word, these dialectal rhymes jostle into view everywhere. It has one small good, however. Also rhymes on-branches can already be found in the rhyme group -esten and do not have to be looked up elsewhere in the book.

The amount of material on offer is - if all these false rhyming friends are pointed out - still considerable. Hüber does not refer to other rhyme groups, but the resourceful user of the rhyme lexicon already knows that it might be worth taking a look at other groups: In this case -est and -este, which again provide a large number of rhyming words.

Conclusion: Hübers hand-book is a treasure for those who love historical language. Without the appropriate knowledge, it becomes tedious to use. But if you can still find your way around in Gothic script, you will be well served by Hübner, because a very large part of his rhyming words are still part of our language today and rhyme just as well as they used to.

Hübner's "Hand-Buch" has meanwhile been set as a fully digitized version on Google Books and the editions of 1696 and 1731 can be viewed. Although the digitized version of the first edition is over 1000 pages long, only the first, approx. 500 page volume of the rhyming dictionary has been digitized. The digitized version from 1731, however, is complete.

Franz Wilhelm Jung: The echoes of the high German language

Franz Wilhelm Jung: The echoes of the high German language. Or the listing of their related words for the sake of poetry. Haumann Verlag, Darmstadt 1834.

This work, which is otherwise suppressed in rhyming lexicography, has been reviewed several times in the contemporary daily press. Since we do not have the book itself, we have included the most important reviews here.

Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, year 1835, Volume 2 \ Numero 110 (1835).

Leaves for Literary Entertainment, No. 163, June 12, 1834.

Literature sheet. No. 66. Monday, June 30, 1834.

Bondy: What rhymes with ...?

Siegmund A. Bondy: What rhymes with ...? Rhyming dictionary of the German language. Publishing house Adalbert Pechan. Vienna / Munich / Zurich 1954.

"Sometimes a thought leads to a rhyme, but sometimes a rhyme leads to a thought", Viktor Hugo says in the foreword of the small paperback "What rhymes with ...?" quoted. That opens my heart right away, because there is joke in it and one is immediately excited to continue to come across more good and right things after such an apt statement. But can so many rhymes really be included in such a small paperback, which, owing to its age, has the three clear colors red, blue and black on the cover, that good thoughts come?

After all, Bondy doesn't talk about the bush for long. After a short introduction, the small volume has a good 100 pages for the rhyming dictionary. In contrast to his colleagues in the basic structure of the rhyming lexicon, not vertically but horizontally. In a two-column print, the rhyming endings are always in the left column, in the right column, separated by commas, all rhymes are listed. This saves space, but at the expense of clarity. Especially with rhyming endings with many rhymes, you quickly find yourself in front of a desert of lead, which is supported by the justification. Bondy's decision becomes unfortunate.

With the test word “test”, as with most other rhyming dictionaries, you first have to scroll down to the rhyming vowel “e” in order to then identify the rhyming group -est. This can also be found at Bondy and lists the following rhyming words: “best, Digest, Estonian, gestures”. Then it is already over, but there is still a reference to -este. There it continues with “festivals”, from which one could then form the “festivals” in order to come back to the rhyme for “testing”. And also “verpeste, vest, vest” allow meaningful rhymes to our text words. But also with -este there are references again, this time to -est and -äste. I follow both and find more useful rhymes. And there are new references there too. Hmm, with -äst I still find what I am looking for, with -esse no longer - but the chain of references does not break off at all. Those who have already kissed the muses will certainly be able to decide for themselves where following up the references no longer makes sense, but the debutant will get lost in this jungle of references.

At least it is confusing that Bondy completely dispenses with marking the vowel lengths. For example, under -äst “branches” can be found in the immediate vicinity of “blows”. That'll be nice rhymes and nice thoughts, I think to myself.

What I like about the ribbon, however, is its handiness. The paper is thin and the ribbon fits in every pocket. Despite its age, the binding is still in tact and somehow the little book makes you want to work with it, to take it with you in the spring to write poems under a budding tree. Just please don't put the word “budding” in the rhyme, otherwise the little book will force you home quickly.

Hans Harbeck: Rhyme you or I'll eat you

Hans Harbeck: Rhyme or I'll eat you. New German rhyming dictionary. Pohl & Co. Munich 1953.

Unfortunately, this is always unfavorable if you include the word “new” in the title of a book, because Harbeck's bespectacled Pegasus with putti wings has been around for almost 60 years and at first glance looks anything but “new”. However, if you remove the yellowed dust jacket, the booklet makes a good second impression. The book is very well made and has survived the years well. Its 170 pages are firmly in place - and they also smell good.

After a brief introduction, in which Harbeck defends the end rhyme itself and also uses well-chosen quotations to prove that the use of rhyme lexicons is not uncommon even with the great poets, the rhyme lexicon begins. The usual arrangement of the rhyme groups according to rhyming vowels a, e, i, o and u is also given by Harbeck. The vowel lengths of the rhyme groups are clearly indicated, only rhyming vowels with umlauts are missing the corresponding symbol. One will look in vain for a rhyme for “dürr” in Harbeck's collection, since the rhyme group -ür only lists rhymes with a long rhyming vowel (freestyle, ulcer). There is an unfortunate systematic error here.

The three-column print of the book makes a tidy impression, the rhyme groups and rhymes catch your eye, the book remains - as you would like a lexicon - open as soon as you open a double page.Unfortunately, competitors like Steputat still can't do that today. The more you work with lexicons, the more you prefer to fall back on those who support you in this matter. It is always a pleasure to flip from one article to the next in an encyclopedia and, when you go back, simply reach into the book at the point where there is a small gap between the pages, in which the encyclopedia has more or less noted where one was last. Harbeck's little book can do that and makes it pleasant to deal with. People fly to Mars and the Moon and fail to satisfy the poet's little joys ...

The test word “test” contains good, if not very many, rhymes in the group of rhymes -este. Rhymes on -ästen are tacitly included in the rhyme group, which saves you from having to scroll down to the rhyming vowel “ä”. Somewhat unfortunate, however, is Harbeck's reasoning, which says: "Because this ä is spoken by normal people just like e." Well, I think to myself, then I'm probably "normal".

But like his colleagues, Harbeck refers to other rhyme groups at the end of the list, in our case to -est. The advantages and disadvantages of these references have already been explained several times in the review of other rhyming lexicons, but what is good about Harbeck is that he only refers to rhyme groups in which words can possibly be redefined to rhyming words by inflection, such as "Fest" to "Festen" or “Pedestal” to “Pedestal”. In our example, the word “lets” shows that this doesn't always work well, which, despite all its strength, cannot be inflected. This is good because it does not list any references to rhyming groups that sound the same. If this is mixed up (as can be observed in other rhyming lexicons), apples and pears are put in one basket. In Harbeck, however, there is no reference to -este. In doing so, he suppresses some good rhymes and sells himself below value.

Conclusion: Thanks to its solid presentation on the part of the publisher and the solid work on the part of the author, this little book is a successful affair. This little book, three or four times as thick, and the Steputat would have faced serious competition. If a publisher had the courage to upgrade an old portfolio, then this would be the right place for it.

Günter Rudorf: Make up your mind

Günter Rudorf: Make up your mind. The modern verse smith. With a large rhyming dictionary. Falken Verlag, Niedernhausen 1993.

“With a large rhyming dictionary” - the publishing house advertises its 1993 book by Günter Rudorf. Since there are then only generously printed 30 pages at the very back of the book, which do almost everything wrong that can be done wrong (the rhyme group -ackt / act is lost and incorrectly formatted under the rhyming vowel “i”; vowel lengths are not shown, the rhyme group -eu refers to the rhyme group -ö, in which one then searches for rhymes on -eu in vain), I grab the first rhyme that comes up to -ö and say “goodbye!” to this bulwark of stupidity.

Elke Müller-Mees: The new versesmith for amateur poets

Elke Müller-Mees explains poetry to us on 110 pages. A total of 17 pages fall into the “Reimlexikon” attached at the end of the book. But the hammer is yet to come. On these 17 pages, Müller-Mees initially sorts the rhymes very sensibly according to rhyming vowels and indicates in an exemplary manner whether this rhyming vowel is short or long. It's easy to follow up to here. If you are looking for a rhyme and turn the 3 pages to the rhyming vowel “e (short)”, you will look in vain for the usual rhyme endings. Instead, Müller-Mees lists around 60 words with a short rhyming vowel “e” - beautifully in alphabetical order starting with “slim down, preppy, exhausting, hacking out, ending”, etc. How one should find a rhyme here is a mystery to me. After reading all 60 words, I can say - there are no rhymes for the test word “test” in this book. However, I find it a bit of a hassle to read half of the rhyming dictionary for this. Under “f” I find “Fest” and “Feste”, there are the rhymes “rest, test” or “rest / teste, best”. At least something rhymes here.

Müller-Mees seems to have thought of this problem at some point, because now I discover that half of the rhyme dictionary consists of reference articles: It works like this: You look for a rhyme for “bold”, look at the rhyming vowel “e (short) ”, Under“ bold ”and you will find what you are looking for !!!, but it is referred to“ bed ”, one looks at“ bed ”and is referred to“ preppy ”, one looks there, Hallelujah !, the rhymes“ Internet / save ' 'bet' / fat, flirtatious, nice ”. It's just stupid if you're not looking for a rhyme with “bold” but with “Brett”. That’s missing in this jungle of references - and then it’s the end, although the book does at least have a few rhymes on “-ett”.

Honestly, Ms. Müller-Mees, how long have you been working on this dictionary of rhymes? Please no longer than a day! “Poetry is like cooking” writes Müller-Mees. With the ingredients that the author uses, I prefer to eat at home.