Awans and Malik are the same caste

German pronunciation dictionary

This document was uploaded by user and they confirmed that they have the permission to share it. If you are author or own the copyright of this book, please report to us by using this DMCA report form. Report DMCA


Overview

Download & View German pronunciation dictionary as PDF for free.

More details

  • Words: 442,219
  • Pages: 1,088
German pronunciation dictionary

Eva-Maria Krech · Eberhard Stock Ursula Hirschfeld · Lutz Christian Anders

German pronunciation dictionary with articles by Walter Haas · Ingrid Hove · Peter Wiesinger Authors of the articles on the Germanization of foreign names and words: Mariana Alvarez · Robert Bannert · Evdokia Balassi · William Barry Peter Colliander · Eberhard Gärtner · Ma´ria Go´sy Beata Grzeszczakowska-Pawlikowska Cordula Hunold Antti Iivonen Claudia Müller Songül Rolffs Aoussine Seddiki Elmar Ternes Livia Tonelli Reinhard Wenk August Wilhelm Zickfeldt

with the collaboration of Ines Bose · Uwe Hollmach · Baldur Neuber

Walter de Gruyter Berlin · New York

앝 Printed on acid-free paper that meets US ANSI standards for durability. 앪

ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6 Bibliographic information from the German National Library The German National Library lists this publication in the German National Bibliography; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.

”Copyright 2009 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 10785 Berlin This work, including all of its parts, is protected by copyright. Any use outside the narrow limits of copyright law without the consent of the publisher is inadmissible and punishable. This applies in particular to reproductions, translations, microfilming and storage and processing in electronic systems. Printed in Germany Cover design: Christopher Schneider, Laufen Typesetting: Dörlemann-Satz GmbH & Co. KG, Lemförde Graphics: Dirk Meyer, Halle Printing and bookbinding: Hubert & Co. GmbH and Co. KG, Göttingen

Preface

V.

Foreword The German pronunciation dictionary provides a recodification of the standard pronunciation and gives recommendations for its appropriate use. It is based on extensive new studies of the way of speaking and listening expectations in various public communication areas. The dictionary thus takes into account stylistic differentiations of the standard pronunciation and describes different degrees of articulation precision when reading texts aloud as well as when speaking freely. At the same time, the German pronunciation dictionary provides the basics of Germanization for 19 different foreign languages. In addition, it describes the standard pronunciation in Austria as well as in German-speaking Switzerland and thus does justice to the development of the German language into a pluricentric language. The dictionary contains around 150,000 German and Germanized headwords. It records a large number of compound words as well as groups of words that illustrate complex accent structures and their effects on sound realizations. Info boxes inserted in the dictionary provide information on pronunciation peculiarities and refer to the detailed pronunciation rules in Chapter 5. An audio CD is attached to the German pronunciation dictionary, which contains the examples from the rules section. A large number of specialist colleagues contributed to the development of this new codification of the standard pronunciation. We thank: Cornelia Demme (Dubielzig), Ruth-Brigitte Fredrich †, Juliane Graf, Josephine Hoppe, Daniel Klaaß, Franziska Kräuter, Uta Kroemer, Michael Küster, Susanne Lembke, Sie-

VI

Preface

grun Lemke, Philine Lüssing, Björn Meißner, Anke Pietsch, Ute Schikora, Ulrike Semper and Christiane Ulbrich. We also owe suggestions in particular to the phonetic analyzes by Gottfried Meinhold and Beate Rues. We would also like to thank everyone who contributed to the preparation and implementation of the sociophonetic surveys, in particular: Henner Barthel, Christian Gutowski, Sigrun Lemke, Philine Lüssing, Rudolf Rausch and Kerstin Werner. We were helped with the compilation of the vocabulary, the transcription and the corrections: Claudia Adam, Barbara Blumtritt, Oliver Ehmer, Franzisca Eisenschmidt, Ilona Fey, Marit Fiedler, Martin Fleschenberg, Sven Grawunder, Evelina Grigorova, Alexandra Haufe, Wilfried Hermann, Tiana Hickel, Aline Hoffmann, Thomas Hoffmann, Fiona Hynes, Christian Keßler, Julia Kiesler, Daniela Köhler, Ulrike Kölsch, Anita Kunert, Siegrun Lemke, Ileana Moise, Augustin Ulrich Nebert, Jana Post, Kerstin Reinke, Josephine Rocholl, Ingmar Rothe, Beate Rues , Oleksandr Rudkivskyy, Tobias Sachse, Nele Saworski, Teresa Scheibe-Ahansal, Irene Schirmacher, René Schmidt, Elisabeth Schönfeld, Ulrike Trebesius, Lucia Thaut, Olaf Umlauft, Uta Wallraff, Ilka Wiese, Helena Witschas, Duygu Yelegen, Anne Zarend and students of the Speech studies of several years. We would like to thank Swetlana Nossok, Friderike Lange and Elena Travkina in particular for their extensive collaboration on the transcription. We would like to thank Claudia Karbe, speaker of the sample words for the audio CD, as well as Friderike Lange and Philipp Nawka for editing the recordings. We would like to thank Dirk Meyer for designing the graphics. Our very special thanks go to Peter Müller for the automatic transcription, the management of all data, the recording of the DVD and for his extensive work and support in all computer-related matters. For financial support we would like to thank - the Institute for Speech Science and Phonetics at the Martin Luther University HalleWittenberg, - the Volkswagen Foundation, - the Max Planck Institute Nijmegen and the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, - the Association of Friends and Sponsor of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg e. V., - the publisher Walter de Gruyter. In particular, we would like to thank Heiko Hartmann, the responsible editor-in-chief at Verlag de Gruyter, for his constant support of the project. Eva-Maria Krech, Eberhard Stock, Ursula Hirschfeld, Lutz Christian Anders Halle (Saale) in June 2009

content

VII

Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distribution and structure of German. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transcription. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

V 1 3

A The standard pronunciation in Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

content

1 2 3 4

Standard Pronunciation - Term and Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . History, principles and methods of pronunciation regulation in Germany Structure and choice of vocabulary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phonological and phonetic basics of standard pronunciation. . . . .

4.1 Vowels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Distinctive features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Quantity and word accent. . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Vowel connections within the syllable. . . . . 4.1.4 Phoneme-grapheme relationships. . . . . . . . 4.2 Consonants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Distinctive features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Special features and problems. . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Phoneme-grapheme relationships. . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Restrictions on Occurrence. . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 morphemes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Free morphemes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Bound morphemes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2.1 Morphemes in front of the stem. . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2.2 Morphemes after the stem. . . . . . . . . . 4.4 syllables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Syllable schemes and consonant connections 4.4.2 Syllable boundaries and vowel quantity. . . . . . . . 4.5 Words and phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Accentuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1.1 Principles and basic rules. . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1.2 Accent Clash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1.3 Rhythmically conditioned secondary accents. . . . . . . 4.5.1.4 Variation of accent patterns. . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Rhythmization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Melodization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 pronunciation rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 accentuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Word accentuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1.1 Simple German words. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 8 17 24 24 24 26 26 27 29 29 30 31 32 33 33 33 33 34 35 35 36 38 39 39 41 41 41 42 43 44 44 46 46 46

VIII

Preface

5.2.1.2 Simple foreign words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1.3 Compounds from German and / or foreign words. . . . . . . 5.2.2 Accentuation in word groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Coarticulation and Assimilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Coarticulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Assimilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Pronunciation of vowels / diphthongs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Identification of the articulation features. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 General pronunciation rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2.1 The glottic impact insert (glottisplosive). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2.2 Quantity and quality of the vowels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3 i-sounds [iÉ I i C]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.4 e-sounds [eÉ E e EÉ]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.5 a-sounds [aÉ a]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.6 ü-sounds [yÉ Y y y *]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.7 ö sounds [PÉ {P]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.8 u-sounds [uÉ U u u8]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.9 o-sounds [oÉ O o O8]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.10 Schwa-Laut [«]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.11 Nasalized vowels [E) É E) ¨É ¨ A) É A) o) É o)] in words from French. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.12 Diphthong [aE8]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.13 Diphthong [loc. Cit.]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.14 Diphthong [OÎ]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Pronunciation of the consonants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Identification of the articulation features. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.2 General pronunciation rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.2.1 Aspiration of the plosives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.2.2 Tension (Fortis / Lenis articulation) and participation in votes. . . 5.5.2.3 Final hardening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.2.4 Coincidence of the same consonants after prefixes and at word boundaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Fricatives [f v v9]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.4 Fricatives [s z z9]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.5 Fricatives [SZZ (]............................... ˚............... ............... 5.5.6 Fricative [JJ] 5.5.7 Fricative [x].................. ......... 5.5.8 r-sounds [å å9 R r Œ?]........................ 5.5. 9 Puff [h]............................. 5.5.10 Plosives [pb b9]......... ..................... 5.5.11 Plosives [td d9].................... ........ 5.5.12 Plosives [kgg (]............................... 5.5.13 Lateral [ l]................................. 5.5.14 Nasal [m]........... ..................... 5.5.15 Nasal [n]...................... ......... 5.5.16 Nasal 5091................................. 6 Phonostylistic differentiators ungen of the standard pronunciation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Conditions and manifestations of phonostylistic differentiations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47 47 48 49 49 49 51 51 52 52 54 56 58 60 62 63 65 67 69

. . . . . . . . . .

70 72 72 73 73 73 75 75 76 76

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77 78 79 81 83 84 85 88 88 90 92 94 95 96 97 98 98

6.2 Phonostylistic characteristics with different speech tension in different public situations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Standard pronunciation with high to medium articulation precision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 Standard pronunciation with a very high degree of articulation precision. . 6.2.3 Standard pronunciation with reduced articulation precision 6.2.3.1 Vowelism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.3.2 Consonantism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.4 Selected pronunciation tendencies with different degrees of articulation precision (overview). . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.5 Common weak forms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Pronunciation and Singing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 Speaking and Singing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 Singing in Classical Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 Singing in popular and folk music. . . . . . . . . 7 Germanization of names and words from other languages. . . . . . . . 7.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Basics of Germanization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Germanization of names and words of selected original languages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Arabic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Chinese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.3 Danish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.4 English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.5 Finnish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.6 French. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.7 Italian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.8 Modern Greek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.9 Dutch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.10 Norwegian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.11 Polish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.12 Portuguese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.13 Russian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.14 Swedish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.15 Slovak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.16 Spanish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.17 Czech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.18 Turkish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.19 Hungarian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Literature (selection). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.

content

IX

. . . .

100

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

100 102 103 105 106

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

110 114 116 116 117 119 120 120 122

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 125 . 126 . 129 . 133 . 138 . 143 . 149 . 156 . 162 . 167 . 171 . 175 . 181 . 187 . 196 . 200 . 206 . 211 . 217 . 220 . 223

The standard pronunciation in Austria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 4

Austrian German. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On the history of standard pronunciation in Austria. . . . . . . . . . . The use of standard pronunciation in Austria and its forms General information on standard pronunciation in Austria. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 4.1 Structure, acceptance, material basis. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

229 229 230 233 235 235

X

Preface

5

6

7

4.2 The syllable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 The use of vowels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The short and long vowels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Short [i] - [u] - [y] and long [iÉ] - [uÉ] - [yÉ]. 5.2 Short [E] - [O] - [{] and long [eÉ] - [oÉ] - [PÉ] 5.3 The realization of long <ä> . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Short [a] and long [aÉ]. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 The diphthongs [ae8] - [ao8] - [OP8]. . . . . . . . 5.6 Nasal vowels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Special vowel connections. . . . . . . . . . The consonants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 The plosives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 The fricative. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 The liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The