Australia is a colony of England

Australia history

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Chronicle of the country's history part 1

about 50000 years before Chr.
Immigration of the Australian natives from Southeast Asia over land bridges that were still in existence at the time, over the Indonesian islands and New Guinea. The sea level was much lower before the end of the Ice Age (approx. 12,000 years ago), at that time New Guinea and Tasmania were still part of the Australian mainland.
about 30000 years before Chr.
Finds show the first settlements and graves of the indigenous population.
about 10000 years before Chr.
Tasmania is breaking away from the continent.
1606
Pedro Fernandez de Quiros lands in the New Hebrides and calls it 'Terra Australis'.
The Spanish explorer Luis Vaez de Torres sailed through the narrowness between New Guinea and Australia (Torres Strait) and discovered that New Guinea is not part of the legendary unknown southern country.
In the same year the Dutchman Willem Jansz sails past the coast of Queensland.
1616
The Dutchman Dirk Hartog lands on the coast of Western Australia, near Shark Bay (Dirk Hartog Island).
1642
Abel Janszoon Tasman discovers the southern tip of Tasmania (until 1856 Van Diemen's Land) and the South Island of New Zealand.
1644
The Dutch, after further exploratory trips along the north, south and west coast of Australia, convinced of the worthlessness of the country, refrain from taking possession of Australia, but give the continent the name "New Holland".
1688
William Dampier, adventure writer and privateer, lands on the north-west coast and is the first Englishman to report extensively and disparagingly for the unknown and inhospitable country. Because of the negative reports, no further research trips will be made for the time being.
1696/97
Willem de Vlamingh, the last of the Dutch seafarers who were so important for the history of discovery, explores Rottnest Island (off Perth / WA) and the Swan River in the southwest.
1699
William Dampier explores the northwest coast and discovers the islands of the Dampier Archipelago.
1768
Chevalier Antoine de Bougainville is prevented by the Great Barrier Reef from claiming the east coast for France.
1769
James Cook discovered the North Island of New Zealand on his first world tour and circled both islands.
1770
Cook explores the east coast of 'New Holland' and anchors in Botany Bay. In the Great Barrier Reef north of Cairns, the "Endeavor" runs into a reef and has to be repaired (Cooktown). On Possesion Iceland he takes the eastern part of the continent for the British King George III. and drives back to London by Torres Street via Batavia (now Jakarta).
1786
After the defeat in the American War of Independence and the associated loss of its colonies in North America, England not only urgently needs a new exile for its prisoners, who have so far been deported in large numbers to the penal colonies of Georgia and Maryland, but also new forest areas to secure the wood supplies for shipbuilding. Lord Sydney, who as Minister of the Interior is also responsible for the penal system, decides to make Botany Bay a penal colony.
1788
January 18th Landing of the "First Fleet" in Botany Bay. 11 ships under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip with 1030 people, including 736 convicts, reached Australia after an eight-month voyage. He considered Botany Bay to be an inconvenient place and sailed north to Port Jackson, which Cook had marked on the maps but not explored further. Phillip found one of the best natural harbors in the world here.
On January 26th, the date on which Australia Day is celebrated today, the first permanent European settlement was established in the inland part of Port Jackson, Australia, after the British Home Secretary Lord Sydney, who was responsible for the colonization plans , baptized Sydney.
Captain Phillip estimates the number of Aboriginal people living in the Sydney area at 1,500.
The French captain Galaup de la Perouse reached Botany Bay six days after the "First Fleet", the ship and crew were lost on the journey home.
1789
In April, smallpox decimated the native populations of Port Jackson, Botany Bay, and Broken Bay. The disease is spreading rapidly along the coast.
1792/93
Bruni D'Entrecasteaux explores the south coast of Tasmania, the Dervent River and the channel between Bruny Island and the main island.
The first voluntary British immigrants come to Australia (partly for political reasons), settle along the Australian east coast and start planting sugar cane fields (rum production) in the tropical north and mainly breeding merino sheep, whose high-quality wool is in the south Motherland is in great demand.
1798
Goerge Bass and Matthew Flinders sail around Tasmania, previously thought to be the southern tip of the continent. They discovered the Tamar River and explored the Bass Strait between Tasmania and Victoria.
1799
Beginning of a six year period of Aboriginal resistance to white settlement in the Hawkesbury and Parramatta areas. Known as the "Black Wars".
1802/03
Matthew Flinders circumnavigates the entire continent of Australia and meets his French competitor Thomas Nicolas Baudin (in front of Adelaide). On the way home, Flinders was arrested in Mauritius and held in French custody for seven years.
1804
Founding of Hobart (Tasmania) on the Derwent River near Sullivan Cove by David Collins.
Colonists are authorized by Lieutenant Moore to shoot 50 indigenous people at Risdon Bay in response to indigenous resistance. The slaughter of indigenous people in Van Diemen's Land has begun.
Most of the Cumberland Plain to the west of Sydney is occupied by colonists. The Darug People are expropriated from their land.
1813
Gregory Blaxland, William Wentworth and Henry Lawson finally find a passage over the constricting barrier of the Blue Mountains, and the colony expands rapidly to the west.
1817
Oxley follows the Lachlan and Macquarie Rivers inland to find the suspected large inland lake. He discovers the Liverpool Plains (New England) and Port Macquarie.
1820
Sydney has a population of around 26,000, including 10,000 convicts. During this time the "squatter period" begins. In the wake of researchers, pioneers penetrate the hinterland that has not yet been released for settlement, occupy it without allocation and start raising cattle. Much later, the "squatters" are legally recognized as landowners by the colonial administration.
1823
New South Wales is given the status of a British Crown Colony. The administrative seat is in Sydney.
1824
Hamilton Hume and William Howell travel from what is now Canberra to Geelong on the suggestion of Governor Thomas Brisbane. During this expedition they discovered the Murray and Murrumbidgee rivers.
1825
Van Diemen's Land becomes Australia's second colony and Hobart becomes its capital. Colonel G. Arthur became the first governor. It was not until 1856 that the colony was given its current name Tasmania, as a "thank you" to the discoverer Abel Tasman.
1828
Van Diemen's land is temporarily under martial law, every white man could now kill natives within the settlement area with impunity. In the dispute over the fertile land, the Aborigines, who were not recognized as fully human in any case, were chased away and systematically exterminated, as in other parts of Australia.
1829
Western Australia is given the status of a British Crown Colony. The administrative seat is initially the port city of Albany, founded by Edmund Lockyer on the south coast in 1826, and later Perth, founded in 1829 on the west coast at the mouth of the Swan River (today around 1.3 million inhabitants).
The Pole Edmund Strzelecki explores the Australian Alps in the southeast of New South Wales and named the highest mountain on the fifth continent "Mount Kosciusko" (2,228 meters) after a Polish hero of freedom.
At about the same time, the British adventurer Charles Sturt explored the rivers of Murrumbridge, Lachlan, Darling (2,740 kilometers, including its headwaters), the longest river in Australia, by boat that he had pulled over the mountains; flows into the Murray) and Murray (with 2,570 kilometers, the second longest river in Australia; flows into the Indian Ocean at Adelaide) and thus a large part of the interior of New South Wales. After his return, Governor Macquarie (since 1808) has convicts build a road over the mountains at a rapid pace, on which tens of thousands of settlers pour into the hinterland of New South Wales, which is suitable for both livestock (sheep, cattle) and for the Agriculture (especially wheat) is suitable.
1830
At the beginning of October, at the time of the Black Wars in Van Diemens Land, Governor Arthur tried unsuccessfully to round up the rest of the natives in the east of the country. 2,200 settlers form a human chain (black line) like a driven hunt, only two natives are caught.
1831
Proclamation of the colony of Western Australia (own government not until 1890).
1834
South Australia becomes Australia's fourth colony and Adelaide becomes the capital.
1836
South Australia established as a colony (own government not until 1856).
Thomas Mitchell made a significant discovery in 1836 for which he was knighted in 1837. He led an expedition along the Lachlan River to the Murray and then to the southern coast, where he discovered what was until then the most fertile pastureland in Australia.
1841
Edward John Eyre is the first European to cross the Nullabor Desert on Australia's south coast.
1844/45
The German doctor Ludwig Leichhardt undertook an expedition that took him from Brisbane on the east coast (created from a prisoner camp founded in 1824) around 4,800 kilometers across the inland up to Arnhem Land (named after the ship of the Dutchman Jan Carstenzoon, who was probably called in 1623 first European sighted the coast of today's "Northern Territory") on the central north coast of Australia.
Leichhardt's second expedition in 1848 - it was to lead across the entire continent from Sydney on the east coast to Perth on the west coast - fails: he and all his companions disappear, like numerous other explorers before and after them, without a trace in the vastness of the desert regions of Central Australia .
1850
Great Britain enacts the "Australian Colonies Government Act", which grants its colonies on the fifth continent extensive autonomy through their own parliaments and constitutions.
1851
Proclamation of the Victoria Colony (government not until 1855).
Start of the gold rush in New South Wales and Victoria. New gold fields are constantly being discovered. The gold discoveries in Victoria trigger an immigration boom. As early as 1860, Australia had over a million inhabitants.
1854
Ballarat miners initiate the Eureka Stockade uprising in November, the only armed uprising in Australian history. The insurgents called for democratic reforms, but the uprising was finally crushed by the British military and local police on December 3, 1854.
1855/56
Independent government for the colony of New South Wales and South Australia.
1859
The north of New South Wales is proclaimed Queensland as its own colony, Brisbane its capital.
1860
Robert Burke and John Wills set out on a south-north crossing of Australia, from Melbourne in the south to the mangrove swamps on the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north. You are killed on your way back in 1861.
1862
John McDouall Stuart managed to cross Australia from Adelaide in the south to Chambers Bay in the north (near Darwin) - the basis for the telegraph line from South Australia via Alice Springs to Darwin.
1868
The last convict transport lands in Western Australia. By then, around 160,000 people had been forcibly displaced to the continent.
1871
Immense tin deposits are being discovered between Queensland and New South Wales, and Australia is rapidly becoming the world's largest tin producer.
1872
Completion of the Overland Telegraph Line from Adelaide to Darwin, following the Stuart route. Cable connection with Java enormously accelerates the transmission of messages between the mother country and the centers on the east coast.
1873
Peter Warburton was the first to cross Australia from east to west.
1876
The indigenous population has already been exterminated on Van Diemen's land. The last Aboriginal, a woman named Truganini, died on May 8th at the age of 73 in an internment camp.
1877
The "Port Arthur" convict settlement on the Tasman Peninsula, founded in 1830 and considered one of the most notorious prison camps in Australia for decades, is being closed.
1878
Start of construction work on the railway line for the Ghan, along the route of John McDouall Stuart. The enthusiasm and money of the golden boom ranged from Port Augusta on the south coast to Oodnadatta, 800 kilometers north. There, in the wilderness, was the end of the line.
1880
Sentenced to death, bush robber Ned Kelly, now a folk hero, is hanged in the 'Old Goal', Melbourne's state prison.
around 1890
Australian literature of its own awakening. Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson is the leading bush balade poet ("Waltzing Matilda" is the most famous Australian bush balad and still today the secret national anthem of Australia) and author of "The Man from Snowy River".
- Audio sample - Waltzing Matilda
Henry Lawson is considered the most important man of letters whose works reflect the bush life of those pioneering days.
1892/93
The gold discoveries in Western Australia (Coolgardie and Kalgoorlie) lead to the second gold rush.
1894
Suffrage for women in the colony of South Australia.

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