What is RSS ideology Are they divisive

Ideology criticism

A: an-naqd al-’idiyulōǧī. - E: ideology critique. - F: critique de l’idéologie. - R: kritika ideologii. - S: crítica de la ideología. - C: yishixingtai pipan 意识形态 批判

Tilman Reitz

HKWM 6 / I, 2004, columns 690-717

The critique of ideology, as one could formulate based on the young Marx, is the prerequisite for all criticism (...). IK is the attempt to throw off external control by revealing the serviceability of understanding patterns. Above all, it is directed against the "ideological deception" that arises when a class or group "expresses its particular interests as general interests" (Marx / Engels) in the political debate. But even where IK attacks other patterns, such as the redirection of dissatisfaction to strangers and the weaker, it sheds light on (the production of) ideas and attitudes that anchor general, political affairs in the subjects. Therefore, IK always means a rudimentary liberation for the individuals involved. In order for this experience to change something collectively, additional factors are of course required. The fact that an explanation of the ruling doctrines does not guarantee an emancipated life was just one of the insights that justify the IK: The attempt to dispel the semblance of prejudices through exemplary thinking can be understood with Marx as the power fantasy of an educator caste who »about society claims to be sublime (ThF 3); conversely, Marx does not want to simply eliminate the ideological actors "who prevent us, either deceivers or deceived by their prejudices, from listening to reason" (d’Holbach, Systems) - an "annihilation of religion" without conditions requiring change in religion, for example, only leads to the "restoration of religion" (Marx) via the "guillotine". Rather, IC becomes a practical means of liberation in the struggle for political-cultural hegemony, in which an inextricably large number are involved and in which at the same time it is also about the real organization of coexistence. Who has what resources here (from the organizational forms to the mass base) decides whether IC takes hold or becomes a message in a bottle; Critical theory, for example, was content with the latter in the 1940s, but then, under new conditions, became part of the intellectual infrastructure of the student revolt. While the political economy determines the chances of an impact of IC, the media and structures of public space also shift their starting points. The more the aesthetic signals from television entertainment and advertising images replace words and arguments, the harder it is to object to the conceptions conveyed by them, and the more the life teachings and convictions are scattered in particular cultures, the more precarious the public debate about appearance and truth becomes. Shifts of this kind shape the history of IK - up to and including the postmodern attempt to declare it obsolete.

The IC is associated with the Marxian I-term from the start, not to be confused with the (moral) ideologyreproach«(Hauck 1992). If the criticism disappears, ›I‹ is reduced to a label for socially determined ›consciousness‹ or for (apparently) ›ideally‹ certain areas such as religion, philosophy and law. On the other hand, anyone who can demonstrate the deceptive generalization of particular interests, a "necessarily false awareness" of the principles of freedom and equality (IfS 1956) or "systematically restricted communication" (Habermas 1988) has done "both representation and [...] criticism" (Marx) .

The word history of ›IK‹ has never been systematically researched, an early use can be found in Antonio Gramsci, who in the 1930s from the critica delle ideologie speaks (Found). Theodor W. Adorno's inaugural lecture from 1931 shows that the cause of the IC and its neutralization were already familiar to critical intellectuals at this time: “One of the most important terms, the I, has been defaced by defining it formally as an assignment Determined the contents of consciousness for certain groups without letting the question of truth or falsehood of the contents arise ”(GS 1). However, whoever analyzes practices (such as kneeling down to pray), arrangements (such as the arrangement of the congregation in the sacred building) and processes (such as the overall course of a church marriage) instead of texts and statements, claims that even if they reject the event in question, not at the same time ›Falsehood‹. That is the factual reason why, since Althusser, the "theory of the ideological" (PIT 1979) has been added to the IC. In the area of ​​statements themselves, discourse analysis takes a similar distance from questions of truth. For her, too, it is initially only about the rules according to which (linguistic) action is organized, not about whether the respective result actually applies. Because IC claims to clarify both, it is sometimes presented as ideological (or ›metaphysical‹) itself. With this, however, their core question is forgotten - to whom the respective worldview is of use.

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