What is National Socialism in theory

The Nazi ideology

The ideology of National Socialism was built on the idea that the German Aryan race was superior to all others. For their ideology they also used the tradition of European anti-Semitism, modern anti-Semitism, which emerged in the second half of the 19th century, the pseudoscientific theory of racial hygiene and that of maintaining racial purity. This theory has been flourishing since the turn of the century, and not just in Germany. In the thinking of the Nazis, the Jews were assigned the role of the main enemy, whom it is necessary to extinguish in order to lead the Aryan race to victory. In the racist ideas of Adolf Hitler, the Jewish people were viewed as inferior, which were only able to live as a parasite on the Aryan people. The task of the international Jewish conspiracy was to subdue and enslave all other peoples. According to the Nazis, Jews were responsible for the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and used it to subdue the Russian people. Jews demoralize Aryan and Christian peoples through usury, alcoholism, immoral art, prostitution, trafficking in women, not to mention allegedly Jewish ritual murders.

Racial thinking was at the center of the National Socialist worldview. According to its ideology, the German race was entitled to rule over other peoples. The German race was therefore the master race and should be the epitome of masculinity, courage and character. Many scientists tried to prove this thesis. The National Socialists also tried to find a clear method with which one could clearly distinguish races on the basis of physical characteristics, especially the so-called Jewish race. But neither by measuring the skull base index (inclination of the skull) nor by analyzing the composition of the blood or any other method, this was possible.

National Socialist poster before an election from 1920.

The National Socialists transferred the thoughts of Darwinism, which is based on the fact that in nature in the long term those living beings that can adapt better will prevail over humanity. In this vulgarized form of Darwinism they claimed that between peoples (or "races") there was an eternal struggle for life and death, which the German race must win. In his work "Mein Kampf", which was both a program writing and an autobiography, Adolf Hitler openly described his ideology, based on the idea that the German people are superior to others and that one must fight for "living space in the east" for this people.

The National Socialists and with them the majority of modern nationalists and anti-Semites shared the idea of ​​the people as an organism that should be consolidated and freed from parasites. In doing so, the National Socialists presented themselves as doctors who had to heal the sick society. In his opinion, the people should be freed from all disturbing elements, the embodiment of which was the Jewish race and its negative influence on society.

After the First World War, in defeated Germany, which was ravaged by the economic crisis, the belief spread that the defeat was caused by the betrayal of the political left and Jews (stab in the back legend). Jews stood for the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and tried to bring it to Germany. At the same time, they were denounced as the creator of a democratic system - the so-called Weimar Republic. It is not surprising that in this environment, many publications such as the Protocols of the Elders of Zion - an anti-Semitic pamphlet, which is considered to be an influential program publication for anti-Semitic conspiracy thinking.

The 25-point program of the NSDAP from 1920 calls for the repeal of the Versailles Peace Treaty and the incorporation of all Germans into greater Germany. The party demanded that the colonies be guaranteed to be able to settle excess German population. Furthermore, they wanted to grant German citizenship to those people who were "Volksgenossen". These are those who have German blood in them. . Even in this program one wanted to turn Jews into second class people. You should only be allowed to live in Germany as a guest and could be expelled at any time. The 1920 program also included a number of anti-capitalist issues and radical demands.