How can I publish a paper

Writing a scientific paper - this is how it works

08.01.2021

Anna Milena von Gersdorff is the online marketing expert who heads the GWriters blog as well as all publications, changes and special promotions on our website. In addition, she is responsible for all public relations and communication with our media partners.

It sounds very simple at first glance: Writing a scientific paper - that's the same as writing a master's thesis, a bachelor's thesis or a term paper. A scientific paper - more precisely formulated a scientific publication - is something different from a master's thesis or another scientific achievement. Therefore, other standards apply to a scientific paper with a view to quality and production.

We'll show you in this text

  • What is a scientific paper

  • What distinguishes a paper from e.g. a term paper or a bachelor thesis,

  • in which cases a scientific paper becomes relevant,

  • How a scientific paper is written and how it is structured

  • How to quote in a scientific paper and how to format it and

  • How or where it can be published (submission & review).

What is a scientific paper anyway?

A scientific paper is a scientific work that is written by one or more authors and is intended for publication in a scientific journal. The aim of the author (s) is to publish the paper in a journal that is as highly ranked as possible. The main difference between a scientific paper and a piece of work that is otherwise written during your studies is that it does not contain extensive representations or explanations of facts. You can basically differentiate between two types of papers, which in turn determine the content

  • A meta-analysis and

  • recording a research gap and closing it with your own research - the paper then presents the research results.

So what is the difference between a paper and any other scientific work?

In master's, bachelor's or term papers, after an introduction to the topic, the relevant theoretical constructs are usually collected, presented and explained and then - especially common in master's theses - empirically validated and recommendations for action derived. All of this does not happen in a scientific paper or only to a limited extent. The topic is only introduced briefly and succinctly, constructs are mentioned at most but are assumed to be known to the readership in terms of content. The further process then depends on whether it is a meta-analysis or a separate scientific study.

What does a meta-analysis include?

In this case, based on the methodology of a systematic literature analysis, the author will ascertain the current situation on the research topic in the literature, highlight similarities and differences between the various publications in order to finally identify research gaps or further research needs.

What does your own scientific research include?

At the beginning of the work, the author will briefly address the research topic, mention - not explain - the central theoretical constructs and then present his study.

When does a scientific paper become relevant?

There are two cases in particular in which the publication of a scientific paper becomes relevant.

"Publish or Perish"

Scientific papers play a role for scientists because they have to or want to publish their research results in order to get a better ranking of their research achievements. The more a scientist is cited in a (different) paper, the higher the quality of his publication seems to be. At the same time, scientists are interested in showing that they are “able to speak” in their field and want to contribute to the exchange of ideas and progress in science through new publications.

Publication of research results is also important in order to receive money for research projects or projects. The hyperbola “Publish or Perish” describes these requirements. Translated into German, this means something like "publish or go under", i.e. researchers are "forced" to publish their research results as quickly as possible in renowned journals in order to increase their own scientific reputation.

This takes place in particular in the research fields of medicine, engineering and life sciences.

Preparation of a cumulative dissertation

In the case of dissertations, a distinction is made between monographs and cumulative dissertations. While in the first case the dissertation appears as "one work", some universities require within the framework of doctoral programs that several papers are created, which are then accepted in their entirety as a dissertation.

This often leads to a reduction in the duration of the doctorate. Furthermore, the publication requirement of the dissertation can be fulfilled via journals.

The ghostwriters from GWriters can help in all departments to create a template for your personal use. The ghostwriters know the guidelines and formal requirements for the creation of a scientific paper and have a look at the current state of research.

In this way, they can not only be of assistance in formulating templates, but also in researching research ideas. They also know what different requirements are placed on publications.

How is a scientific paper written and how is it structured?

When creating a scientific paper, keep in mind the target audience you are addressing. It is not the university or your professor as in a master's or bachelor's thesis, but an informed specialist audience. The language should be accordingly. In terms of content, you can therefore assume basic facts and do not need to explain them.

A scientific paper follows a fixed structure that differs from journal to journal, but has a common order as shown in the table below.

part

content

title

Title of the paper, possibly subtitle

Authors

Mention of the authors and, if applicable, the co-authors with names, backgrounds and origins as well as contact details

Abstract

Summary of the main theses of the work - keep in mind that the abstract will later be available in all publicly accessible catalogs. You can find an example of this here. Under "Abstract", the abstract can be read by everyone without access to the database. Tip: Use this abstract to check whether the paper is relevant to you or not when creating your own work. And another tip: with a click on "Download Citation" you can transfer the paper in a desired format (usually RIS, BitTex or RefWorks) to your own bibliography.

JEL classification

The JEL classification is a uniform reference work for indexing publications in economics. This keywording is used to later find the publication in catalogs or databases. The code is developed and maintained by the American Economic Association (AEA). The relevant codes for assigning your paper can be found here and you can also download them as an XML table.

Keywords

Here you enter four to five key words that describe the content of your text and are used to search for your text in databases or catalogs.

Introduction

The introduction introduces the topic and names the central constructs. It can be understood as an independent, small “overview work”.

Key Results

Here the central findings of your research are presented or the theoretical constructs presented - depending on the orientation of the paper. A subdivision into further chapters depending on the research content is quite common here.

Methods

The research design is explained here and - in the case of a separate research - the research results are linked to the key results.

Discussion

The results of the research are interpreted and placed in a larger overall context by showing similarities and contradictions to previous research results and presenting limitations in the research.

Summary

The summary summarizes the essential findings, draws a conclusion and gives possible outlooks, among other things, on questions that have remained open.

Acknowledgments

In the acknowledgment donors, supporters and critics are thanked.

Conflicts of Interest

The researcher names persons or companies who financed the research, if this financing could lead to possible conflicts of interest in the work.

References

The literature list contains the publications used. These must be of high quality for a scientific paper and should therefore come from journals with a high ranking (“A” or “A +”) if possible. You can find an example of a ranking in business administration here.

Contact

The contact details of the author or co-authors will be announced.

What you can already see from the terms: The vast majority of scientific papers - especially those that appear in internationally renowned journals - are written in English. Make sure you use proofreading or translation services here so that you can convince not only professionally but also in the foreign language with your paper.

GWriters will be happy to support you with translation as well as editing or proofreading.

Do you want to know what distinguishes proofreading from proofreading and text editing? With pleasure!

This focus on English-language journals is also evident when looking at the countries in which most of the scientific publications are published. After China, the USA ranks second here. All other countries come a long way behind.

How do you quote in a scientific paper and how do you format such a paper?

The specifications are different depending on the journal. So find out in advance from the respective journal which format specifications and citation specifications exist here. A citation and a structure according to the APA guidelines is customary. You can find extensive support for the APA standard here.

What is the submission and review process for a scientific paper?

“Writing and publishing” is of central importance in science: As a rule, papers appear in a specialist journal, in conference proceedings as so-called proceedings, in compilations or in commemorative publications. The submission processes are comparable. The process generally looks like this:

  1. Selection of the topic and the survey of the time to publication

  2. Selection of the target journal, the target group and possible co-authors

  3. Carry out a literature search and prepare the theoretical part

  4. Obtaining feedback from the supervisor

  5. Documentation of empirical research and methodology

  6. Carrying out a pre-review e.g. in conferences or with befriended students

  7. Implementation of the changes

  8. Proofreading

  9. Transfer of the paper to the journal

  10. Initiation of the review process

  11. Decision of the journal on acceptance or rejection

  12. If accepted: Incorporation of the auditor's change requests (possibly multi-stage process) in dialogue with the auditor

  13. publication

If you follow these steps, you will get a good scientific paper in just a few steps! Please note, however, that the rejection rate is high in the first step.

Around 30 percent of all submissions are rejected immediately and do not even enter the review process. The acceptance rate for journals or papers that are then also published is only around 1 percent, but these rates vary greatly from journal to journal. For example, what the journals for which Elsevier is responsible looks like in the following illustration.

Journals usually use a submission platform for submission. This is either a separate platform or the AMA platform, which can be reached here for the Journal of Marketing, for example. Here the user also receives further valuable information for the structure and creation of papers in the form of a guideline.

How do I find the right journal for my publication?

As mentioned, the selection of the journal is at the top of the to-do list. You can find the most relevant journals for publications

Alternatively, you can also have a look at the papers that were mainly used in your research. You will quickly find common ground here. This is especially true for publications in economics and medicine.

Do's and don'ts for creating a scientific paper - the checklist!

DOS

Don’t

  • look for a journal early on

  • strictly adhere to the format specifications of the journal

  • Note the submission deadlines

  • lose sight of the target audience

  • work too explanatory and descriptive

  • do not present any scientific innovation

The most important questions about the creation of scientific papers answered!

How do I write a scientific paper?

Either as a meta-analysis to present the state of research or to present your own research without an explanation and description of theoretical constructs.

Where can I find scientific papers?

Scientific papers are published in journals, conference proceedings (proceedings), compilations or commemorative publications.

What is a scientific paper?

A scientific paper is either a reflection of different research results on the research topic or is understood as a presentation of a new research result.

How do I publish a scientific article?

Scientific articles can be published on the submission platforms of the respective journals. You go through an extensive review process.

I dont get any further! Where can I find help?

Depending on the subject, GWriters can then also provide you with the appropriate experts. Business administration, economics, medicine and law ghostwriters all have different skills and abilities that you can use in your projects.

Would you like to get an idea of ​​what such work can look like? Take a look at our sample work. Here you will find excerpts from work. You can also fall back on the services of GWriters in the context of a doctoral consultation.