Why doesn't mercury dissolve in water?

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[747]mercury (Hydrargyrum, Mercurius, Argentum vivum), chemical symbol Hg, ☿, atomic weight = 100 (H = 1), 1250 (O = 100). The Q. is the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperature, it is silver-white with a tinge of blue, and has an excellent metallic sheen; its specific gravity is according to Kupffer at + 4 ° C. 13.5886, according to Regnault at 0 ° C. 13.5959 it conducts heat well and has a low heat capacity; according to Kopp the same is 0.0332. The expansion of the Q-s when heated from 0-100 ° C. is almost uniform, the expansion coefficient is 0.00017995 at 0 ° and 0.00018305 at 100 ° C; the mean expansion coefficient for this temperature difference is therefore 0.00018153. It boils at 360 ° and forms a colorless vapor of 6.976 specific gravity, which condenses again to liquid Q. on cooling. Already at 40 ° C. the Q. evaporates in a noticeable amount and even at normal temperature it evaporates. The mercury vapors are extremely poisonous; they cause salivation, after prolonged inhalation a peculiar trembling of the limbs, often even death. The ease with which the Q. distills depends essentially on its purity; According to Millon, pure Q. distills thirteen times more than Q., which 1/10000Contains lead; Tin has no effect; Platinum increases the speed of the distillation if it has been left in contact with the Q. at 50–80 ° C for a few days; the Q. then also acquired the property of foaming when shaken. At around - 40 ° C. the Q. becomes firm and is then pliable as lead; it can be hammered and cut and creates bubbles on the skin like hot iron. The freezing of the Q. is easiest to accomplish if the metal is combined with a mixture of solid carbonic acid and ether; If you put the solid Q. in water, it freezes quickly, while the Q. becomes liquid. According to Faraday's attempt to freeze Q. in a glowing platinum crucible, the crucible is heated until it is glowing, then ether and then solid carbonic acid are added to it; Then a platinum dish with about 2 Loth Q. is immersed in the rotating mass, which solidifies within 2 to 3 seconds. This phenomenon is explained by the Leidensorst phenomenon and by the cold produced when the mixture of ether and carbonic acid evaporate, which causes the Q-s to freeze. The solid Q. crystallizes in regular octahedra and needles; its specific gravity is 14.391. Pure Q. does not oxidize in air; on the other hand, the commercially available Q. which is contaminated with easily oxidizable metals is soon covered with a thin oxide membrane. If the Q. is heated almost to its boiling point, it absorbs oxygen and forms red. Mercury oxide; it combines with chlorine at ordinary temperature; Boiling hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid do not attack it, dilute nitric acid dissolves it. The Q. can be transformed into a gray powder by shaking it, especially with foreign bodies (killing the Q-s). To display this mercury powder, the metal is shaken with acetic acid (Böttger) or with various salt solutions such as chlorcallum, salmiak, saltpeter (Millon). The Q. can also be obtained in the form of a very delicate powder by precipitating it from a solution of mercury; a solution of tin salt in dilute hydrochloric acid is mixed with a hot aqueous solution of mercury sublimate while stirring and the precipitate is washed out with hot water; The decomposition takes place in such a way that the tin chloride removes the chlorine from the sublimate and converts it into tin chloride: SnCl + HgCl = SnCl2 + Ed.

Occurrence and extraction of the Q-s. The Q. is one of the less common metals; it is found, but more rarely, native to the mercury ores, sprinkled in droplets as virgin mercury. The most important mercury ore is cinnabar (see below), which occurs in deposits in the Grauwacken Mountains and in the sandstone, in the younger limestone of the Transitional Mountains and in the Rothliegende, less often in corridors accompanied by pebbles and iron path. Mercury liver ore and steel ore are bituminous marls permeated with vermilion; Brick ore, slate permeated with vermilion or sandstone; Coral ore are intertwined with cinnabar slate knots; Fire ore is mild, ore-bearing slate with a lot of bitumen; there are also some very rare mercury ores, such as amalgam (made of silver and others), Mercury horn ore (Mercury chloride) and selenium mercury. The most important mercury mines [747] are at Idria in Illyria and Almadén in Spain, also at Horzowitz in Bohemia, Landsberg in Rheinbaiern, in Peru, New Almadén in California, Mexico, China. By far the largest amount of Q-s on the market is obtained from the cinnabar, the amount obtained by purifying the virgin mercury is very small. In Idria and Almadén the ores are heated separately in furnaces with air admission, the sulfur burns to form sulphurous acid and the Q. evaporates; the latter is then collected in suitable condensation rooms; In Rheinbaiern the cinnabar is heated with lime, whereby calcium sulphide and lime sulphate are formed; instead of the lime, iron hammer is used, which combines with a part of the sulfur to form sulphurous iron, while another part burns sulfur to form sulphurous acid. The older mercury loops from Idria consist of shaft furnaces with adjoining condensation chambers. Above the hearth there are three perforated vaults at appropriate intervals on which the ores are poured, the larger pieces on the lowest, the smaller on the second vault, the dust and rubbish from previous work is placed in bowls on the uppermost vault. The mercury vapor evolving from the heat and the sulphurous acid pass through a channel into a series of condensation chambers that are connected alternately below and above; the Q. condenses on the walls of the same and flows from the sloping floor, tamped from clay, into channels to the collecting reservoir. These furnaces have recently been partly replaced by flame eyelets, in which the ores come into contact with the flame and air; The vapors first enter an antechamber, from where they are passed through two long horizontal tubes to four communicating, two upper and two lower chambers, from which they enter the chimney through two other long horizontal tubes. A small part of the Q. condenses in the chambers; by far most of it collects, mixed with soot and dust, in the tubes, which are cooled by the water flowing over them. This mixture, the stump, is dried on bowls and ground up on inclined wooden platforms, the greater part of the Q-s flowing off in drops; the residue, which still contains considerable quantities of Q., is burned off on dishes in the antechambers. The mercury eyelets used in Almadén differ from the previous ones by a peculiar condensation device; They have a grate at a certain height above the furnace, on which the ores are poured and heated initially by a light wood fire, then more strongly. The vapors are first conducted into small chambers and from these, in several rows (strings) of clay pear-shaped templates placed next to one another, so-called aluminum noodles, which lie on a plane inclined towards the center, the aluminum noodle plan; The vapors from the aluminum noodles get into a chamber and are finally drawn off through the chimney. Most of the Q. condenses in the aluminum noodles and runs through the joints of the same onto the aluminum noodle plan, from where it is led through a channel to the collecting container. In Rheinbaiern the cinnabar mixed with lime is distilled from iron retorts, each of which 1/2 Centners of ore holds 30–50 of them in a furnace. The Q. distills in earthen templates half filled with water. The Q. is sent in wrought iron bottles or in bags (mallets) made of tanned mutton skins. The Q. was brought from China to England in bamboo sticks 1 foot long and 3 inches thick, hollowed out and sealed with resin. The Q. which occurs in the trade is never completely pure, it contains larger or smaller amounts of lead, bismuth, tin and copper, as well as dust and impurities. Such impurities can already be recognized by the gray coating with which the Q. is covered, as well as by the fact that the drops are not round, flow slowly and, when rolled on white paper, leave behind a dirty streak (tail); when shaken, impure Q. is covered with a gray skin, which clings to the glass wall; in this way is still 1/40000To detect lead. In order to free the Q. from dust and impurities, it is pressed through leather or filtered through a filter with a small hole pierced in the tip. Almost all of the added metals can be removed from the Q. by distillation (see above), but some bismuth and tin always go over with it. A very pure metal is obtained if commercially available Q. is left in contact with English sulfuric acid for several weeks with frequent shaking, and then digested with dilute nitric acid or nitric acid mercury. Or you can rub the Q. with you 1/60 a solution of ferric chloride of 1.48 specific gravity diluted with the same weight of water; the Q. is divided into its globules, which combine again after washing out and drying. Q. obtained by heating mercury oxide is always oxide-containing and must therefore be digested with dilute nitric acid or hydrochloric acid in order to dissolve the oxide. A very pure Q. is obtained by boiling pure mercury chloride with metallic iron; Completely pure Q. is obtained by distilling equal parts of cinnabar and burnt lime or iron filings. The Q. is used to fill thermometers and barometers, also for the amalgamir process in silver mining, for covering mirrors, for gilding in fire, in chemical laboratories for gas analysis and similar work, for the preparation of cinnabar and a number of other preparations which are used partly for technical purposes, partly as medicaments. The metallic Q. is in the finely divided state in a number of official preparations, which are prepared by rubbing Q. with fats or slimy substances. By rubbing the Q-s with sugar you get the Mercurius saccharatus s. Aethiops saccharatus; with graphite den Aethiops graphiticus, with sulfur antimony Aethiops antimonialis, with rubber slime the Mercurius gummosus, with fat the mercury ointment, Unguentum mercuriale see hydrargyri cinereum. The Q. was already known to the ancients, Theophrastus describes its preparation from cinnabar (Χυτὸς ἄργυρος, ie cast silver), which was found in Spain, artificially prepared came from some places in Ephesus Alchemists, because one hoped to be able to effect the ennobling of the other metals through the same.

Connections of the Q-s. A.) With oxygen. The Q. combines with oxygen in two proportions to form basic oxides: a) Mercury Oxide, Ed2 O, a black powder with a specific gravity of 10.69, it is anhydrous, disintegrates into oxide or oxygen when exposed to light or heat, and into oxygen and oxygen when heated. It is obtained by decomposing a mercury oxide or mercury chloride with potassium hydroxide; the black precipitate is washed out by decantation with water and dried in the dark at ordinary temperature. Mercury oxide is insoluble in water, soluble in hot acetic acid and dilute mineral acids, acids form with it Mercury oxy-sulfide saltsobtained by dissolving the oxide in the acid in question; The nitric acid mercury oxide is also obtained by treating Q. in excess with nitric acid or by digesting nitric acid mercury oxide with metallic Q. The solutions of the mercury oxide salts are precipitated black with alkalis, yellowish with carbonate of soda, black when heated, with double-carbon sodium; Hydrogen sulfide and ammonium sulfide precipitate black mercury sulfide, hydrochloric acid precipitates mercury chloride, if the salt oxide contains mercury chloride, mercury chloride passes into the solution; metallic copper reduces the solution; Tin chlorine initially precipitates white chlorine; when used in excess, a gray precipitate of metallic Q is produced. b) Mercury oxide, HgO, appears in two isomeric modifications, one of which is red, the other yellow. aa) The red oxide (red mercury oxide, red mercury prevalence), a HgO, can be obtained in the form of a red crystalline powder by continued heating of Q. in a closed vessel at a temperature approaching the boiling point of Q-s; so prepared the mercury oxide was earlier than Mercurius praecipitatus per se officinell. It is easier to prepare by heating nitric acid mercury oxide or mercury oxide alone or with as much metallic material as there is in the salt, until no more red vapors of nitric acid escape; in the first case the oxide forms beautiful red crystalline scales of 11.2 specific gravity, which when rubbed give a reddish-yellow powder; as such, the oxide is obtained by heating the nitric acid salt with Q. bb) The yellow oxide, b HgO, which was earlier mistakenly taken for hydrate of oxide, falls as a precipitate when a solution of nitric acid mercury oxide or mercury chloride is mixed with excess potassium hydroxide. Both oxides behave differently towards chlorine, oxalic acid and mercury chloride. If chlorine is allowed to act on dry mercury oxide, it is oxidized to hypochlorous acid; but here the nature of the mercury oxide is of great influence. Red oxide only causes the formation of a small amount of hypochlorous acid, on the other hand the action on yellow oxide is so violent that considerable heating and even the development of light occur; the hypochlorous acid gas formed decomposes again; but if the oxide is cooled, pure, oxygen-free hypochlorous acid is obtained. By dissolving oxalic acid in the cold, the yellow oxide is almost instantaneously transformed into white oxalic acid salt, while the red oxide can be heated with it without being dissolved. If the yellow oxide is heated with a spirit solution of mercury chloride, it turns into black oxychloride, while the red oxide does not change. In most of the other properties, the two oxides show no differences, but they give compounds which have different properties with the same composition. The mercury oxide becomes dark, almost black, when heated, but gets its color again when cooled; at a higher temperature it breaks down into Q and oxygen; it is probable that the yellow oxide turns red before decomposition. In the light the mercury oxide also breaks down into Q and oxygen, it has an oxidizing effect on oxidizable bodies when heated, some organic substances are even oxidized with mercury oxide in aqueous solution when boiled. The mercury oxide is somewhat soluble in water and has a caustic and toxic effect. With acids, the mercury oxide forms basic, neutral and acidic Mercury Oxide Salts, the neutral ones are colorless and are broken down into acidic soluble and basic insoluble ones in contact with water; the latter are yellow. The mercury oxide salts are poisonous, the soluble give the following reactions: Caustic potash and caustic soda give a yellow precipitate of mercury oxide, ammonia and carbonate of ammonia precipitate white basic double salts, hydrogen sulfide is added in small amounts, white precipitates, compounds of mercury mercury with undecomposed so-called sulfur-base salts, for example: 3HgCl + 2HS = HgCl, 2HgS + 2HCl; Used in excess, hydrogen sulphide, as well as ammonium sulphide, gives black precipitates of mercury sulfur; yellow blood lye salt falls white, gelatinous ferrocyanic mercury, which turns blue after standing for a long time; red blood liquor salt gives a yellow precipitate. Potassium iodine falls on the mercury iodine as a beautiful scarlet precipitate; Tin chloride initially falls white basic salt, then metallic Q. Hydrochloric acid, as well as chlorine potassium and chlorine sodium do not precipitate mercury oxide salt solutions. Metallic copper is coated in a solution of a mercury oxide salt with metallic Q.

B.) The Q. combines with chlorine when heated in chlorine gas and thus forms two compounds: a) Mercury Chloride, Ed2 Cl, so v.w. Calomel, s.d .; b) Mercury chloride (corrosive mercury sublimate, sublimate, Mercurius sublimatus corrosivus, Hydrargyrum muriaticum corrosivum), a transparent crystalline mass which can be sublimated and can thereby be preserved in crystals; from solutions it easily crystallizes in long, thin prismatic crystals, which are different from those obtained by sublimation, but belong to the same system; Very beautiful crystals shoot from a solution of chloride in a solution of zinc mercury chloride. It melts at about 265 ° C, boils at 293 ° C, dissolves in 17.4 parts at 0 °, in 1.8 parts at 100 °; it is easily soluble in alcohol and ether. It [749] is extremely poisonous. It is obtained by dissolving mercury oxide in hydrochloric acid and evaporating it to crystallize, or by dissolving Q. in hot hydrochloric acid with the addition of nitric acid and evaporating it. Q. heated in a stream of chlorine burns with a white flame to form mercury chloride. In the factory it is obtained by sublimating a mixture of equal parts of sulfuric acid mercury oxide and common salt in wide-necked retorts; Sublimate and sulphate of soda are formed. Mercury chloride is used as a medicine, it is used to prepare various mercury preparations, furthermore for etching steel, in the calico printing shop as a reserve and has been recommended by Kyan for the conservation of wood (see wood conservation) (kyanization of wood). Compounds of mercury chloride: aa) The mercury chloride combines with other chlorides to form double chlorides, so-called chlorohydrargyrates, in which it plays the role of an acid; the most important of these double compounds are: ammonium mercury chloride, exists in several proportions; which has long been known as Alembrothsalz (Sal Alembroth, Salt of Wisdom) = Am Cl, Hg Cl + HO, is obtained by dissolving 1 part of ammonia and 2 parts of mercury chloride in water and evaporating the mixture; it crystallizes in rhombic prisms, and loses water in dry air without changing its shape. Barium mercury chloride, BaCl, 2HgCl + 2HO, calcium mercury chloride, beautiful air-resistant crystals of the composition CaCl, 5HgCl + 8HO separate from a saturated solution of mercury chloride in calcium chloride; Large deliquescent prisms of the formula CaCl, 2HgCl + 6HO crystallize from the mother liquor. Potassium mercury chloride, KCl, HgCl + HO crystallizes from a solution of mercury chloride saturated at 30 ° in a solution of potassium chloride, if afterwards as much potassium chloride is added to the liquid as was used; If the solution is evaporated without the addition of potassium chloride, needles with the composition KCl, 2HgCl + 2HO are obtained. Magnesium mercury chloride, MgCl, 3HgCl + 5HO and MgCl, HgCl + 6HO, deliquescent salts. Sodium mercury chloride, NaCl, 2 HgCl + 4 HO, crystallizes in beautiful six-sided prisms. Manganese chloride, iron chloride and zinc chloride form isomorphic salts with mercury chloride with the composition RCl, HgCl + 4HO. bb) The mercury chloride also combines with oxygen salts to form double salts, for example with sulphurous ammonia, 2 (AmO, SO2) + 3HgCl, crystallized in pearlescent leaves; also with acetic acid copper oxide, with chromic acid potash; the compound with the latter salt crystallizes from the dissolution of equal equivalents of mercury chloride and double chromate of potash in red, hard crystals of the composition HgCl + KO, 2Cr Os; Another compound is obtained in pale red crystals, which according to the formula 2HgCl + KOCrO3 are composed. These salts can be regarded as being composed of: (HgO, 2CrO3 + KO, 2CrO3) + (HgCl, KCl) and (HgO, CrO3 + KOCrO3) + (3HgCl, KCl). The compounds of mercury chloride with chromic ammonia are: Hg Cl + AmO, 2 CrO3 + HO, crystallized in large red six-sided prisms, and HgCl + 3 (AmO, 2CrO3), which crystallizes from the mother liquor of the former salt. cc) The mercury chloride combines with mercury oxide in different proportions to the basic mercury chlorides (Mercury oxychlorides); they arise e.g. from the action of mercury oxide on sublimate solution or from incomplete precipitation of sublimate solution by potash or soda or from the action of chlorine on mercury oxide. Several of these oxychlorides appear in various modifications, depending on whether they contain the yellow or red oxide. A solution of double-carbonate of potash, which is saturated at ordinary temperature and which must be completely free of single-carbonate of potash, since this initially pure oxide precipitates, is used to represent the compounds. According to Roucher, six compounds of mercury oxide with mercury chloride can be obtained, in which the former is in the ratio of 1 to the latter: 1/2 : 2: 3: 4: 5: 6. The semi-basic mercury chloride, HgO, 2 HgCl, which contains the yellow oxide, falls as a yellowish white precipitate from a mercury chloride solution. The compound HgO, HgCl is not known. Doubly basic mercury chloride (Mercury dioxychloride), 2 HgO, HgCl, which contains the yellow oxide, is obtained when a solution of double-carbonate potash is mixed with 6-10 times the volume of the sublimate solution, stirred and the precipitate is immediately filtered; it is a brick-red, non-crystalline powder. The same oxychloride is obtained as an initially yellow, then vividly red precipitate when 3 to 4 volumes of the sublimate solution are precipitated with 1 volume of the solution of bicarbonate of potash. The connection with the red oxide is produced by continuous boiling of mercury oxide with excess sublimate, also by precipitating sublimate solution with double-carbonated potash with constant rubbing; it crystallizes in black leaves. Triple basic mercury chloride (Mercury teroxychloride), with the yellow oxide, precipitates in shimmering gold scales similar to musiv gold from a mixture of sublimate solution with the same volume of double carbonate of potash. The same oxychloride is obtained amorphously from the yellow oxide and sublimate in the cold. Quadruple basic mercury chloride (Mercury quateroxychloride), 4HgO, HgCl, settles from the filtrates of the previous oxychlorides, even if 1 vol. Sublimate solution is mixed with 4 to 6 vol. Solution of double carbonated potash; the compound is gradually deposited on the surface as a brown crystalline crust. Fivefold basic mercury chloride, 5HgO, HgCl, is obtained in black-brown needles crystallized by the slow action of mercury chloride on excess red oxide in the cold; the sixfold basic mercury chloride, 6HgO, HgCl is formed in the same way. A compound 6HgO, HgCl + HO is also known. dd) With sulfur mercury (Mercury chlorosuluret), 2HgS, Hg Cl, obtained by introducing [750] hydrogen sulfide into a sublimate solution or digestion of freshly precipitated mercury sulfur with sublimate solution, a white precipitate which turns into black mercury sulfide through continued introduction of hydrogen sulfide. Obtained as a whitish crystalline powder in a dry way by heating sulfur mercury with mercury chloride in closed tubes; similar to that Mercury chloroseleniet, 2 Hg Se, Hg Cl. ee) With phosphorus mercury. By introducing hydrogen phosphide into the sublimate solution, an initially blackish, but then yellow precipitate of Mercury chlorophosphorite, Ed3 P, 3 Hg Cl. When dried over sulfuric acid, the compound contains 3 equivalents of water; when boiled with water it decomposes into Q., hydrochloric acid and phosphorous acid. ff) With arsenic mercury. With sublimate solution, arsine gives a brown-yellow precipitate of Mercury Chlorarseniet, Ed3As, 3 Hg Cl; on heating 3 parts of calomel with 1 part of metallic arsenic the compound Hg As, Hg Cl sublimes in pale yellow crystals. gg) With Mercury amide. Mercury chloride-mercury amide (White precipitate, Hydrargyrum amidato-bichloratum), Hg Cl + Hg NH2, a white powder with a disgustingly pungent metallic taste, is poisonous, not in alcohol, not very soluble in water, which the latter removes salmiac when boiled or washed out for a long time and leaves a basic, yellow compound. It is obtained by precipitating a solution of 1 part ammonia and 2 parts sublimate in water with carbonate of potash; It is obtained in crystalline form if ammonia liquid is added to a boiling ammonia solution and sublimate solution is added as long as the precipitate initially formed is dissolved again; when it cools down, small crystals shoot up. Even if a concentrated sublimate solution is precipitated with caustic ammonia, the compound is preserved. The rational formula of the white precipitate is probably Hg Cl + N {H, H, Hg.

C.) With bromine: a) Mercury bromur, Ed2 Br, a compound similar to calomel, is insoluble in water and dilute acids and is obtained by precipitating a mercury oxide solution with potassium bromide or by sublimating equal equivalents of mercury bromide and similar. b) Mercury bromide, Hg Br, can be obtained like chloride, most easily by the direct combination of Q. and bromine in the presence of water. It dissolves in water and alcohol, crystallizes in colorless, shiny leaves or needles, melts when heated and then sublimates. Similar to mercury chloride, it combines with other bromides to form double bromides. With mercury oxide it forms basic mercury bromide (Mercury oxybromide), yellow crystalline powder, is produced when mercury bromide is boiled with mercury oxide; 3 Hg O, Hg Br, a brown powder, obtained by treating mercury bromide solution with carbonate of soda. Mercury bromosulfuret, 2 Hg S, Hg Br, yellowish precipitate, initially formed when mercury bromide is precipitated by hydrogen sulfide.

D.) With iodine: a) Mercury iodine, Ed2 I, a yellow-green powder, very little in water, not soluble in alcohol, easily breaks down into Q. and mercury iodide or mercury iodide-iodine, forms when Q. and iodine or mercury iodide are rubbed together with Q., wetting the mass with alcohol. To rid it of iodide, it is treated with alcohol. It is as Hydrargyrum iodatum flavum s. Jodetum hydrargyrosum officinell. b) Mercury iodoiodide, Ed2 I + 2 Hg I, arises by precipitating a solution of nitric acid mercury oxide with iodine potassium, to which 1/2Equivalent of iodine has been deposited, a yellow precipitate which is insoluble in water and alcohol; when heated it becomes red, then melts and can be sublimated without decomposition. The sublimated crystals are red in the heat, but turn yellow on cooling. The same compound is easily obtained by rubbing mercury iodide with it 1/2Equivalent Q. c) Mercury iodide, Hg I, a splendid scarlet red powder, is obtained by precipitating a sublimate solution with potassium iodine or iodine iron, although an excess of the precipitant and the mercury salt must be avoided because the precipitate in the potassium iodine dissolves easily, but an excess of sublimate supplies chloride containing preparation. It is only slightly soluble in water, in alcohol, especially in hot, also in ether and fatty oils; from a solution of potassium iodide that has been prepared hot, it crystallizes into splendid red crystals on slow cooling. On moderate heating the red color changes to yellow; at higher temperatures it melts, boils, and sublimates in tabular plates of a beautiful yellow color. The shape of the red crystals is essentially different from that of the yellow ones, so the mercury iodide is dimorphic. The yellow crystals obtained by sublimation turn red by themselves after a while; this transformation takes place immediately when crushed, rubbed or scratched, sometimes even when cooling. The mercury iodide is as Hydrargyrum biiodatum rubrum officinell. Mercury iodide combines with iodine metals analogously to double chlorides aa) Double iodides (iodohydrargyrates), also with other mercury compounds. Potassium mercury iodide, KI, 2 Hg I + 3 HO, crystallized from a concentrated solution of iodine potassium, in which 3 equivalents of mercury iodide are dissolved, in long yellow prisms, which are soluble in alcohol and ether, add water to the heat and add one melting red liquid of mercury iodide; Water separates half of the mercury iodide, the solution gives crystals of the compound K I, Hg I. Sodium mercury iodide, a yellow, non-crystalline mass which turns red on rubbing, as mercury iodide is separated out. Ammonium mercury iodide, Am I, 2 Hg I + 3 HO, yellow needles, sublimable. bb) Mercury iodide (Basic mercury iodide), 3 Hg O, Hg I, a yellow-brown powder, is produced when mercury iodide is digested with dilute potassium hydroxide. cc) Mercury Chloride Iodide, Hg I, 2 Hg Cl, colorless crystals, precipitate from a hot solution of mercury iodide in mercury chloride. dd) Mercury iodosulfuret, Hg I, 2 Hg S, is formed as a yellow powder when mercury iodide is digested with an insufficient amount of hydrogen sulfide water for complete decomposition. [751]

E.) With nitrogen: nitrogen mercury.

(Trimer curamine). When the white precipitate is heated, a red residue similar to mercury oxide remains, which Mitscherlich describes as a compound of mercury chloride with nitrogen mercury (2 Hg Cl + Hg3 N) was recognized. In the isolated state, the nitrogen mercury was presented by Plantamour by passing dry ammonia gas in the cold over precipitated mercury oxide. It is a brown powder which explodes strongly under the appearance of fire, like iodine nitrogen, but not so easily as this; if it is allowed to explode on a sheet of iron by heating, a depression or hole is created. With concentrated sulfuric acid it explodes, concentrated nitric acid gives nitric acid ammonia and nitric acid mercury, hydrochloric acid gives mercury chloride and ammonia. When heated with caustic potash, it yields ammonia, etc.; concentrated potassium hydroxide turns it into a yellow powder. The nitrogen mercury can be regarded as ammonia in which 3 equivalents of hydrogen are represented by Q.

F.) With sulfur: a) Mercury subsulfuret (Half-sulfur mercury), ed2 S, is obtained as a black precipitate on precipitation of the mercury oxide salts with hydrogen sulphide; it is best to drip a dilute solution of nitric oxide of mercury into a dilute solution of ammonium sulphide; when heated it breaks down into simple sulfur mercury, etc. b) Mercury sulphuret (Simple sulfur mercury), Hg S, in the amorphous state forms a black powder, when crystallized it is red and represents cinnabar (sd). The black sulfur mercury is formed by the direct combination of Q. and sulfur in the required proportion, as well as by precipitation obtained from a solution of mercury oxide with hydrogen sulfide, it is a velvety black powder which, when heated, sublimates and turns into cinnabar. Diluted acids do not dissolve it, concentrated nitric acid or aqua regia decompose it. It dissolves in a concentrated solution of potassium sulphide; when the liquid evaporates, colorless needles of the compound: K S, Hg S + 5 HO. The one used as a medicament Aethiops mineralis is a mixture of black sulfur mercury with sulfur; it is obtained by rubbing together equal parts of Q and sulfur.

G) With selenium: selenium mercury, Hg Se, is found in nature, is artificially preserved by the direct combination of Q. and selenium; on heating it sublimes to a gray, metallic, crystalline mass.

H) With phosphorus, the Q. combines with phosphorus when mercury oxide is digested; The phosphorus mercury is black or brown and breaks down when heated.

I.) With fluorine: a) Mercury fluorine, Ed2 Fl, arises when aqueous hydrofluoric acid is added to carbonic acid mercury, also when a solution of fluorosilver is mixed with mercury chloride. It can be heated up to 200 ° C. without decomposition, at a higher temperature Q sublimates and the glass is strongly attacked; Water decomposes it and excretes mercury oxide; b) Mercury fluoride, Hg Fl, crystallized from a solution of mercury oxide in aqueous hydrofluoric acid in colorless needles; Water breaks it down to form reddish yellow Mercury oxyfluoride, Hg O, Hg Fl + HO. Silica mercury fluorine, 3 Hg2 Bottle, 2 Si bottle3 + 6 HO, water-white prisms, crystallize from a solution of carbonate of mercury oxide in silicofluoric acid. Mercury oxide dissolves in silicofluoric acid to form an acidic salt; on evaporation of the solution, yellowish crystals of silica mercury fluoride, 3 Hg O, 3 Hg Fl, 2 Si Fl3 + 9 HO, which are decomposed by water.

K) With cyan: Mercury cyanide, Hg Cy, crystallized in white, opaque columns from a solution of mercury oxide in hydrogen cyanide; it dissolves in water, little in alcohol, tastes bitter and metallic, is extremely poisonous; it is used to represent the cyan gas. Mercury oxycyanide, Hg Cy, Hg O, arise as white needles when mercury oxide is dissolved in a boiling solution of mercury cyanide and the solution is allowed to cool. Mercury chlorocyanide, Hg Cy, Hg Cl, a dissolution of equal equivalents of mercury chloride and mercury cyanide gives air-resistant crystals of this compound on evaporation, potassium mercury cyanide, K Cy, Hg Cy, crystallizes in air-resistant colorless octahedra, which are in 41/2 Partly dissolve in cold water. Chlorammonium mercury cyanide, NH4 Cy, 2Hg Cy, crystallizes in long, silky-shiny needles. Bunsen finally has an interesting salt from the formula Hg2 Fe Cy3 NH4 O, shown.

L.) With Rhodan: a) Mercury rhodanur, Ed2 C.2NS2, is formed when dilute solutions of nitric acid mercury oxide are mixed with potassium rhodium; white precipitate, which is very little attacked by acids, but is decomposed by hydrochloric acid and hydrogen sulfide. When heated there is carbon disulfide, cyan, nitrogen, Q., sulfur mercury and Mellan leaves behind. b) Mercury rhodanide, Hg C2 N S2, needle-shaped crystals, which are obtained when mercury oxide evaporates in hydrofluoric acid, they contain water and give very different products of decomposition when heated. Mercury oxyrhodanide, Hg C2 N S2, 2 Hg O, is produced as a yellow powder from the solution of potassium mercury rhodanide by ammonia