How did Africa resist imperialism?
Zeitbilder 5/6, textbook
7. Imperialism - from the perspective of the victims Fu l r e i c h S a m o r i s Algiers Tanger Timbuktu Léopoldville Stanleyville Windhoek Cape Town Pretoria Nairobi AddisAbeda Faschoda Cairo Tobruk Tripoli A l g e r i e n L i b y e n Tunisia Morocco Ifni Rio de Oro Egypt S u d aild n France Som. Brit.- Somalild Brit.- East Africa German- East Africa Nyassaland North Rhodesia South Rhod. Bechuan Country South Africa. Union Basutoland Swaziland Southwest Africa German Angola Belgian Congo Cabinda Span.- Guinea Cameroon Nigeria Toga Gold Coast Sierra Leone Port.- Guinea Gambia M a u r e t a n i e n Canary in. Spanish Madeira port. Atlantic Ocean Lagos F r a n z. - W e s t a f r i k a Kufra oases Ä q u a t o r i a la f r i k a E r i t r e a Abyssinia I t a l. - S o m a l i l d F r a n z. - O s t a f r i k a P o r t u g. - O r a n j e T r a n s v a a l Liberia Zanzibar brit. Aldabra In. British Comoros French M a d a g a s k a r Ocean Indian Tunis M i t t e l m e r N i l N i g e r K o n g o S a m b e s i O r a n j e Hausa Rabehs Matabelereich Herero 1904/07 A t l a n t i s c h e r O z e a n Walfisch-Bai South Afr. Belgian British German French Italian Portuguese Spanish Non-colonial area Tribal empires around 1890 Uprising 0 500 1000 1500 2000 km Red Sea The colonial division of Africa before 1914. “Race for Africa” Many Europeans saw Africa as a “white spot” the map. At the end of the 18th century there was more research into Africa. Societies were founded, such as the "African Society" in London in 1788. Rivers, raw material deposits, usability of the soil, climate and lifestyle habits of the population were explored. The findings also benefited colonialism. In many cases, the researchers were directly involved in the colonial interests. They were followed by traders, settlers and missionaries. Trade relations between Europe and Africa increased in the 19th century. This led to stronger intra-European competition and power rivalry. The situation worsened around 1880 when the young nation states such as Belgium, Italy and Germany made colonial claims. At an international conference in Berlin in 1884/85 the powers planned to secure their interests in Africa. Without African participation, the governments of Europe and the USA decided on freedom of trade and navigation in the area of the Congo and Niger, on the forms of future occupation and the abolition of the slave trade. Kayoya, a writer from Burundi, writes: Q The self-confidence of the "colonized" In 1885, Berlin was divided into two parts of our continent. Without asking anyone, our misery had been taken care of. They came to pull us out of our centuries of misery. They came to educate us. They came to civilize us. This Treaty of Berlin offended me for a long time. Every time I came across that date, I felt the same disdain. [...] The level of indignation that a human heart can "digest". Worst of all, I was taught that date. I had to memorize it. […] The consequences were spread before our immobile faces: The pacification of Africa The benefits of civilization in Africa The courage of researchers The selfless humanism But nobody Absolutely nobody pointed out the insult to the shame that accompanied us everywhere. [...] (Kayoya, The Self-Confidence of the “Colonized”, quoted in: ÖIE (ed.): Öe-themed issue, focus on Rwanda / Burundi, 2000, o. S.) In the “Race for Africa” borders were redrawn. They corresponded to the balance of interests of the colonial powers, but not to the traditional settlement areas (see map). The Herero and Nama Uprising The reactions of the African population to their colonial submission were varied. There was adjustment, collaboration, resignation, but also resistance. The resistance in Abyssinia was successful. There the establishment of an imperial Italian rule was militarily repulsed in the 1890s. Towards the end of the 19th century, the living conditions of many black peoples changed fundamentally. Several factors were decisive for this. Among the Herero in South West Africa z. B. Rinderpest, drought and malaria had devastating effects on livelihoods. At the same time, German settlers took possession of land and bordered pastures. The Herero were often forced to sell land. They became increasingly poor and soon had to earn their living as wage laborers. This process was accompanied by a ruinous land policy on the part of the chief chief and the profit-seeking land sales of individual chiefs. The Africans, however, felt the increasing legal uncertainty and the one-sidedness of the colonial judiciary as particularly depressing. The flogging was part of the “natural” and “indispensable” punishment and discipline. In addition to this legal uncertainty, the German colonial rulers began planning reserves. That was the background to the Herero-Nama uprising of 1904/07, on the immediate occasion of which the chief Samuel Maharero said: Q The war came from very small things and need not have come. Once it was the [...] merchants with their terrible usury and [...] forcible collection. For […] 1 pound of debt after 12 months they wanted 177 expansion - from colonialism to imperialism For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv
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