What is the carbonization of wool
CarbonizeSeparation of animal and vegetable substances with destruction of the latter is based on the process that all plant substances are chemically and physically changed by a mineral acid (sulfuric, hydrochloric acid) at a certain temperature by transforming their main component, cellulose, into hydrocellulose in such a way that they are now easily friable and disintegrate into dust under the mechanical action of rubbing, tapping, and brushing, while the animal fibers are less attacked if the concentration of the acid is chosen appropriately and the latter is thoroughly removed after a certain period of action. Due to this fact, the sheep's wool in particular is freed from the adhering Velcro parts. If the wool is not too heavily contaminated, it is removed from the finished goods (carbonization in the piece); otherwise the loose fiber material is carbonized. S.a. Cloth manufacture.
The Carbonization of the loose wool happens either in sweat or after thorough washing of the same. In the former case, the wool is carbonized in a not completely cleaned condition by pre-washing it in the Leviathan without the aid of detergents. Most of the saponifiable fats are washed out by the alkaline salts of the wool sweat, and mostly only saponifiable fats remain on the fibers,  which are not changed during carbonization and are later removed by extensive soap washing. This simplifies the processing, since there is no need to rinse the wool between washing and carbonizing and deacidifying after the latter. With the usual carbonization of loose wool, it is thoroughly washed and rinsed clean, then immersed in a sulfuric acid bath at 3–4 ° Bé for several hours. The wool is then lifted out, mechanically freed from the excess acid and now enters the drying and carbonation room, where it is pre-dried at 30-50 ° and carbonized at 70-90 °. If one were to expose the wool to the high degree of heat, it would also be attacked. Build recommended carbonation machines for loose wool Rudolf & Kühne in Berlin and Demeuse & Cie. in Aachen. With the latter machine (D.R.P. No. 46018), the material is moved and turned over frequently during carbonization, which means that the same is carbonized evenly in all its parts and the spinning ability of the fiber is preserved. The following operations aim to remove the brittle parts of the plant and deacidify the wool. The former happens immediately after heating through a treatment in the knocking grinder, which smashes the plant parts into dust and blows it out. The latter is achieved by thorough washing in water, soaking in soda solution at 5 ° Bé and repeated intensive washing.
The Carbonization of woolen fabrics it is preferred to that of raw wool if it is only slightly contaminated with Velcro parts. For the impregnation with acid, the fabric is soaked, usually as it comes from the loom, in the loden, but carefully washed, in sulfuric acid at 4 ° Bé with occasional changing for one to two hours. After the product is well soaked, it is spun sharply and dried in the carbonation machine. Often one turns the machines from Rudolf & Kühne in Berlin and from Haubold in Chemnitz. They consist of two ancillary resp. Heatable spaces lying one above the other through which the fabric is guided over guide rollers. One room serves as a pre-drying chamber, the other as a carbonation room. The following deacidification and washing takes place on the washing machine first with water, then with soda solution at 5 ° Bé, and finally with water again.
Literature:  Grothe, Technologie der Gespinstfaschen, Berlin 1876, I, pp. 186, 203; II, p. 70. -  Ders., Appretur derabric, Berlin 1882, p. 60 ff. -  Knecht, Rawson and Löwenthal, Handbuch der Färberei, Berlin 1900/01. -  Herzfeld, Bleicherei, Wascherei und Karbonisation, Berlin 1890, p. 203. -  Scheuerle, The fabrication of synthetic wool and the carbonisation process, in »German. Wollgewerbe «1885, p. 157 ff. (Price work). -  Löbner, The carbonization of wool, fabrics, rags etc. and the synthetic wool manufacture, Grünberg 1890. -  Müller, E., Handbuch der Spinnerei, Leipzig 1882, p. 388.
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