Why are ions charged
a) Formation of ions in the salts through electron migration
Generally one understands by Ions charged atoms or groups of atoms. They play an important role in nature. There are many minerals that form, for example, cube-shaped crystals. The crystals of these minerals are not polished or reworked, they are grown naturally. In rock salt, the cubes are made from sodium chloride, in galena from lead sulfide, in pyrite from iron (II) disulfide and in fluorite from calcium fluoride:
All of these minerals are made up of salts. Salts can also be produced artificially in the laboratory: if you hold heated sodium in a cylinder with chlorine gas, for example, the white salt sodium chloride is produced in a lively reaction.
The element sodium is in the first group of the periodic table. A sodium atom has a valence electron on the valence shell. This electron can easily be given up. Chlorine is in the 17th group of "salt formers". Chlorine atoms have seven valence electrons in the valence shell. You only need one electron to achieve the noble gas configuration with eight valence electrons. When sodium and chlorine react, the electron migrates from the valence shell of the sodium atom into the valence shell of the chlorine atom. By donating electrons, the sodium atom is positively charged, it becomes a sodium ion Na+. The chlorine atom has taken up an electron and thereby receives a negative charge. It becomes a chloride ion Cl−.
The term ion is from the Greek word ion (the wanderer) derived. Positively charged ions are called Cations denotes, they are created when atoms give up electrons. Negatively charged ions are calledAnions, they arise when atoms take up electrons. The difference in charge creates an electrostatic attraction between the two ions. It creates a Ionic bond. The I.charging indicates how many positive or negative charges an ion has. It is indicated by a superscript Arabic number to the right of the ion. If the charge is only simple, only a plus or a minus sign is written. Compound ions can be enclosed in square brackets.
|N / A+||Mg2+||Cl−||[SO4] 2−|
|Sodium ion||Magnesium ion||Chloride ion||Sulfate ion|
The ions form a regular Ion lattice. In the Sodium chloride structure is every Na in the ion lattice+-Ion of six Cl−-Ions surrounded octahedral (illustrated in the graphic). At the same time, each Cl−-Ion of six Na+Ions surrounded octahedral. Salts that crystallize according to the sodium chloride structure can not only form cubes but also octahedra.
If sodium chloride is dissolved in the water, the ions are retained, they then float freely as charge carriers in the solution. For this reason, salty water conducts electricity, while pure, distilled water conducts almost no electricity. The disintegration of the ion lattice into freely movable Na+- and Cl−-Ions in the solving process is one dissociation. In somewhat simplified terms, dissociation means the breakdown of a chemical compound into two or more components.
2.) Ion formation in acid and base reactions through proton migrations
When the acids and bases react with water, proton migrations take place. When trying to fountain, water forms with hydrogen chloride Hydronium ionsH3O+ and with ammonia Hydroxide ionsOH−. A round bottom flask is filled with hydrogen chloride. Conversely, if you hold it in water with a nozzle, the hydrogen chloride eagerly sucks water into the flask. When dissolving in water, positively charged hydronium ions and negatively charged chloride ions are formed. These ions swim in the formed hydrogen chloride solution, the hydrochloric acid, and enable the charge exchange within the liquid.
In the second variant of the fountain experiment, when ammonia is dissolved in water, positively charged ammonium ions and negatively charged hydroxide ions are formed. Ammonia solution is obtained, which also conducts electrical current.
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