What is the science of misgeneration

Incorrect generation: characteristics, types and historical examples

Incorrect generation is the racial and cultural mix from which new ethnic groups and phenotypes emerge. This term refers to the historical process that took place in Latin America with the indigenous people through the Spanish conquest and colonization. This also applies to ethnic-cultural fusion processes in the USA, the Philippines and South Africa.

The Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (1822) recognized "mestizo" as the adjective or name applied to any "person or animal born to fathers and mothers of different castes". He attaches particular importance to the son of a Spaniard and an Indian (not the other way around, i.e. between Indians and Spaniards).

In the course of history, wrong generations occurred in different regions of the planet at different depths and rhythms, which were understood as biological encounters.


- Miscegenation essentially refers to the racial mixture between indigenous peoples and Europeans. It also roughly includes other ethnic and cultural associations, as white, indigenous, black African and later also Chinese people participated in the ethnic mix.

- This process began with the arrival of Christopher Columbus to America in the Middle Ages.

- Its greatest expression - from a geographical, social and cultural point of view - has taken place in South America, starting with the initial cross between European and indigenous whites.

- The term mestizo was used to denote the son of a Spaniard and an Indian during the colony.

- It was not a single ethnic mix, but several, because the indigenous peoples with which the Spaniards were mixed were different.

- It was not a peaceful process of ethnic mixing, but on the contrary the result of the violent conquest of the Europeans by the indigenous peoples of South America.

- Cultural misunderstanding was also imposed by the prevailing culture.

- It is also not a static, but a dynamic process that took place in different regions of the planet at different speeds and which also influenced the climate.

- The process was caused by the shortage of Spanish women at the time of the conquest and during the early settlement phases at the time of the colony.

- The cross between Spaniards and Indians was associated with prestige and social factors.

- Among other negative traits of the false generation (understood as encounter or cultural shock) was the plunder of wealth in America.

- There was a transmission of diseases from Europeans to Indians, resulting in dangerous epidemics that decimated entire tribes.

- Imposition of religion on the indigenous people, the massive killings and enslavement of the indigenous peoples.

- The wrong generation produced ethnic contributions (phenotypic), cultural (language), knowledge and brought modernity with it.


From the mixture of the three basic human groups - white, Indian and black - into which the yellow was later incorporated, a number of castes or ethnic groups emerged in America.

Although innumerable ethnic crosses have emerged from mis-generation, the basic castes were as follows:

Source: BBC World

What is the mestizaje process like?

With the arrival of the Spaniards in America and the beginning of settlement in 1498, this long process of false generation began.

Most of those who accompany Christopher Columbus on his journey to the New World are adventurers, people with no social roots in Spain.

Few women

The fundamental factor causing the ethnic overlap between Spanish and Indian men is that there were very few women in the first decades of the conquest. However, some women were able to come on the third trip from Columbus to America.

On the expeditions from Hernán Cortés to Mexico between 1519 and 1521 and from Pedro de Mendoza to the Río de la Plata in 1536 they were already accompanied by women.

But the process of conquering and exploring was fundamentally masculine. So the main cause of the wrong generation was the lack of Spanish women in the first decades of the conquest.

Prestige factor

Added to this are the "prestige factors and the favorable positions for the union of Indian women with Spanish" mentioned by the historian Luis Ernesto Ayala Benítez.

In the first years of the conquest, very few Spanish families lived in the conquered areas. These unions were necessary for the settlement of the cities founded by the conquerors.

Rape and rape

The Spanish conquerors and expeditionaries were mostly people of low social origin. In order to raise a family or simply to reproduce, they had to unite with the indigenous peoples of the conquered peoples.

Then the conquerors and soldiers, through rape, kidnapping or conquering the indigenous people, created a population of unprecedented origins.

Even during the colony, there was ethnic intermingling between landowners married to Indians and blacks. Owners of plantation haciendas and mines injured their own slaves and kept them as concubines.

There have been cases when the Spaniards married native Indians due to the strict norms of the Catholic religion.

It was something similar to the Spanish barraganato, where the man took command of the barragana and his children. But in this case the wife had no inheritance right as a wife.

The Spanish crown and the wrong generation

The wrong generation turned out to be a real surprise for the Spanish crown, as the Spaniards had a strict ban on crossing with the local population.

In 1549, King Charles V banned mestizos and mulattos or any illegitimate son from being appointed to public colonial administration.

But reality prevented the rule from being met, and formal unions and unions became common. There are records of Spaniards who took responsibility for their mestizo women and children.

The wrong generation in America

The misunderstanding in America arose with the Spanish and Portuguese conquest and colonization on the Latin American continent. Originally, illegitimate trade unions and racial segregation were equal categories.

America is essentially a mestizo continent. The ethnic crosses have spawned a new culture and created a caste system in all conquered areas of the New World.

During the first years of the conquest, the mestizos were people who enjoyed social prestige. Some were children of the conquerors and their mothers were princesses or women of high social status in indigenous culture. Many women were offered to the Spaniards as peace offerings.

But that situation changed over the years; since the 16th century the mestizos were no longer socially recognized. It is when illegitimate unions arise that are not approved by the church.

The mestizo children were the result of rape and abuse by Spaniards against Indians and vice versa. Hence, ethnic mixes were seen as inferior.

Racial superiority was given by "pure Spanish blood". The more Spanish blood a person had, the greater their social status. In order to get into the university, a blood purity test had to be carried out in front of a committee or an admissions jury.

Crossing and crossing

Originally, the DRAE associated the word miscegenation with the purely ethnic cross between Spaniards and Indians. But as early as 1947 the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language introduced the term "Mestizar" and expanded its meaning.

"Mestizar" alludes to the falsification or corruption of castes through the copulation of people from different ethnic groups. Later, in 1992, the term mestizaje was given a different meaning that was no longer derogatory.

Currently, the term is used to characterize the cultural and ethnic mix from which a new culture emerges. The term mestizo means to mix and not to spoil.


The concept of false generation is linked to a semantic construction of the ideological character of the 19th century. According to this vision, there were pure races throughout the colony contrary to the current perception that there is only the human race.

On the other hand, the wrong generation, as it was understood in the 19th century, referred to a wrong perspective. According to this vision, there was a "unique race" in America that intermingled with the "European race".

Indeed, there were peoples with different cultures: Caribbean, Quechua, Charrua, Aymara, Guarani, Tupi, Nahuatl, Quiche, Naya, Mapuche, Mapundungun and Acateco. They also emphasize the cities of yuracaré, achí, yoruna, chicomuselteco, chon, cumo, chol, totozoqueano, tehuelche, mataco and other dozen more.

Among the genetic origins of the Native Americans, there are biological records of the peoples of Siberia, Europe, and Asia.

Arrival of the Africans

With the arrival of black slaves in Africa, the process of false generation intensifies and new ethnic groups emerge. The crosses were no longer just between Spaniards and Indians, but between Spaniards and blacks, blacks and Indians and other possible mixtures.

In addition, the Spanish and Portuguese colonization in Latin America meant a process of acculturation, since the incorrect generation was also cultural.

Examples of missing generations in history

- The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega is one of the most outstanding examples of the misunderstandings between Spaniards and Indians in the first epoch of the conquest.

- Martín Cortés Malintzin, the illegitimate firstborn son of the Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortés and Malintzin, an indigenous woman of Nahua origin. This mestizo, although recognized by his father, had to be legitimized by a papal bull in 1529.

- From 1544 onwards, there were also numerous misunderstandings between Spaniards and indigenous people in this region in Argentina and Paraguay.

- The Spanish conqueror and governor of the Río de la Plata and Paraguay, Domingo Martínez de Irala. He not only lived with several concubines, but also allowed other Spaniards to do so. This ethnic crossbreed would result in a large offspring in this part of South America.