What is the URN number with examples

Persistent Identifier

In order to be able to find, identify and cite electronically published data of any kind reliably and permanently, you need a permanent identifier. A persistent identifier is a unique label for a specific digital object and always remains the same, even if the name or the storage location of a publication changes.

Examples of persistent identifiers are URN (Uniform Resource Name), DOI (Digital Object Identifier), ORCID, Researcher ID Thomson Reuters, Scopus Author ID, GND number (Common Authority File Number), Google Scholar Citations Profi, ISNI (International Standard Name Identifier), ISBN and ISSN.

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) make it possible to make online publications citable.

In contrast to the rather short-lived URL address, the DOI is retained as a permanent identifier. The university library awards DOIs for digital objects (e.g. research materials, essays / articles, digital copies, images) belonging to the members of the university.

DOI - visibility and citability of your electronic publication

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are used for the permanent and unique identification of electronically published documents, comparable to the ISBN of a book. They are associated with the object, not the location. If the address (URL) changes, the metadata is updated and the DOI name remains valid. The object can be found permanently.

DOIs are already widely used for all types of publications and research data and have developed into an internationally applied quasi-standard due to their widespread use.


Each DOI name is a unique sequence of alphanumeric characters.

Example: http://dx.doi.org/10.20378/irbo-49553


The usual way of citing an electronic document with DOI is as follows:

Author: Title. Publishing company. Identifier

According to the decision of the university management on June 21, 2017, the university library acts as a data center for the allocation of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) at the University of Bamberg.

The university library therefore issues a DOI at the university.

The university library guarantees the permanent availability of the object and the metadata as well as the quality and completeness of the metadata.

If you have any questions about the allocation of DOI, please contact opus.ub (at) uni-bamberg.de.

The University Library of Bamberg awards DOIs for permanent electronic published scientific documents of the members of the university, for example articles in open access journals, preprints and postprints, conference papers, videos, images, gray literature, ...

Your documents are permanently published in full text in the Research Information System (FIS).

We automatically assign DOIs for new electronic publications in the FIS.

On request, we offer you to retrospectively add a DOI to documents that have already been published in the FIS. Please send your request to fis (at) uni-bamberg.de, stating the title, author and, if possible, the FIS handle (5-digit number at the end of the URL in the front door in the FIS).

If you have any questions about the allocation of DOI, please contact Barbara Ziegler or fis (at) uni-bamberg.de